Јужно острво

Јужно острво (енгл. South Island,[1] маор. Te Waipounamu) је једно од два главна острва Новог Зеланда (друго је Северно острво). Има површину од 151.215 km², што га чини дванаестим острвом по величини на свету.[2] Дуж западне обале Јужног острва пружа се ланац планина Јужни Алпи, чији највиши врх је Кук са 3,754 метара изнад нивоа мора. На острву постоји 9 националних паркова, а познато је и по скијалиштима.

Јужно острво
Turbid Waters Surround New Zealand - crop.jpg
Сателитски снимак Јужног Острва
Јужно острво на мапи Новог Зеланда
Јужно острво
Јужно острво
Нови Зеланд
Географија
Координате43° 58′ 59″ ЈГШ; 170° 27′ 00″ ИГД / 43.983° ЈГШ; 170.450° ИГД / -43.983; 170.450
Површина150.437 km2
Обала5.842 km
Висина3.754 m
Највиши врхМаунт Кук
Администрација
НЗЕ
Демографија
Становништво1.096.200  (2016.)
Густина ст.0 стан./km2

Први европљани који су стигли до овог острва били су у експедицији Холанђанина Абела Тасмана. Његова два брода су стигла у Златни залив на северу острва децембра 1642. У 19. веку неке мапе су називале острво „Средња земља“ или „Нови Алстер“. На острву живи 1.096.200 људи, што је око четвртина народа Новог Зеланда. У прошлости (19. век) овде је живела већина становништва. Острво је подељено у седам региона: Нелсон, Марлборо, Тасман, Отаго, Кентербури, Западна обала, Јужна земља. Највећи градови на острву су Крајстчерч, Данедин, Инверкаргил, Нелсон, Вестпорт, Хокитика, Бленхајм, Тимару, Оамару.

Пошто је 32% веће од Северног острва, Јужно острво се понекад назива и „копно“ Новог Зеланда.[3] Ono је дом за 23 одсто од 5,1 милиона становника Новог Зеланда. Након златних грозница током 1860-их у раним фазама насељавања земље Пакехама (Европљанима), Јужно острво је имало већину европског становништва и богатства. Популација Северног острва претекла је јужно острво почетком 20. века, са 56% становништва Новог Зеланда које је живело на Северном острву 1911. Насељавање људи и предузећа на северу се наставило и током двадесетог века.[4]

ГеографијаУреди

РеференцеУреди

  1. ^ Staff Reporter (10. 10. 2013). „Two official options for NZ island names”. The New Zealand Herald. Приступљено 20. 12. 2018. 
  2. ^ „Quick Facts - Land and Environment : Geography - Physical Features”. Statistics New Zealand. 2000. Архивирано из оригинала на датум 8. 4. 2013. Приступљено 13. 8. 2012. 
  3. ^ Meier, Cecile (10. 9. 2015). „South Island the true Mainland: Cecile Meier”. Stuff.co.nz (на језику: енглески). Приступљено 13. 4. 2020. 
  4. ^ King, Michael (2003). The Penguin History of New Zealand. Auckland: Penguin Books. стр. 280—281. ISBN 978-0-14-301867-4. 

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  • Tony Ballantyne (2009). „Culture and Colonization: Revisiting the Place of Writing in Colonial New Zealand”. The Journal of New Zealand Studies.  This essay offers an overview of recent historical writing on colonialism.
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  • Pollock Jacob (2007). „Cultural Colonization and Textual Biculturalism”. New Zealand Journal of History: 180—198. »Compares the approaches in James Belich's Making Peoples: A History of the New Zealanders. From Polynesian Settlement to the End of the Nineteenth Century (1996) and Paradise Reforged: A History of the New Zealanders. From the 1880s to the Year 2000 (2001) with those of Michael King's The Penguin History of New Zealand (2003). Responding to Maori arguments that the colonial narrative of Pakeha history was a device to privilege the legitimacy of British colonisation, Belich wrote a radically bicultural story. He says the two peoples—both immigrants—developed their mother cultures inside New Zealand. King takes a more traditional approach that portrays a new unified state in which there are not two distinct and equal cultures but two principal varieties of New Zealanders.« 
  • The Dictionary of New Zealand Biography. »As well as all the Prime Ministers, Māori chiefs, early settlers and sporting legends, this also includes con artists, adventurers and other lesser known but interesting characters from New Zealand's past.« 
  • Te Ara: The Encyclopedia of New Zealand. »A work still in progress, this will eventually offer short but comprehensive snapshots of most aspects of New Zealand, past and present.« 
  • An authoritative and fairly comprehensive online source. Ministry for Culture and Heritage. 
  • „The New Zealand Journal of History”.  complete texts of scholarly articles and book reviews; quarterly since 1967
  • The Cyclopedia of New Zealand. 1897.  Encyclopedia covering people, organisations and places.

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