Ауторитарност — разлика између измена

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{{short description|Облик друштвене организације коју карактерише потчињавање ауторитету}}{{rut}}
{{Облици држава}}
 
'''Ауторитарност''' је друштвени однос који фаворизује претерано поштовање ауторитета [[власт]]и али и појединих [[личност]]и као неприкосновених арбитара у свим значајним питањима од важности за социјалну организацију [[живот]]а, институције и политику. Из тога проистиче трајна и радикална неједнакост учесника у [[друштво|друштвено]]м животу и њихова немогућност да слободно исказују и задовољавају своје потребе и интересе. Идеологија ауторитарности која може прећи у идеологију ауторитаризма је антидемократска, потцењује [[Вредност (етика)|вредност]]и [[индивидуа|појединца]], оправдава идеју силе и почива на ауторитарном [[систем]]у вредности. Овакав систем вредности најчешће се остварује принудним средствима преко државних институција и [[Орган (анатомија)|орган]]а, [[политика|политичких]] странака, верских група, система [[образовање|образовања]] или било којих других [[група за притисак]].<ref>Делови чланка су преузети из књиге Ивана Видановића „[[Речник социјалног рада]]“, уз одобрење аутора.</ref>
 
Ауторитарност је [[form of government]] characterized by the rejection of [[political plurality]], the use of a strong central power to preserve the political ''[[status quo]]'', and reductions in the [[rule of law]], [[separation of powers]], and [[democratic voting]].<ref name=Cerutti>{{cite book|title=Conceptualizing Politics: An Introduction to Political Philosophy|author=Furio Cerutti|page=17|year=2017|publisher=Routledge|quote=Political scientists have outlined elaborated typologies of authoritarianism, from which it is not easy to draw a generally accepted definition; it seems that its main features are the non-acceptance of conflict and plurality as normal elements of politics, the will to preserve the ''status quo'' and prevent change by keeping all political dynamics under close control by a strong central power, and lastly, the erosion of the rule of law, the division of powers, and democratic voting procedures.}}</ref> Political scientists have created many typologies describing variations of authoritarian forms of government.<ref name=Cerutti/> Authoritarian regimes may be either [[autocratic]] or [[oligarchic]] in nature and may be based upon the rule of a [[Dominant-party system|party]] or the [[Military dictatorship|military]].<ref name=EscrowFrantz>{{cite book|publisher=[[Continuum International Publishing Group|Continuum]]|author=Natasha M. Ezrow |author2= Erica Frantz|year=2011|title=Dictators and Dictatorships: Understanding Authoritarian Regimes and Their Leaders|page=17}}</ref><ref name=LaiSlater>{{cite journal |author=Brian Lai |author2= Dan Slater |title=Institutions of the Offensive: Domestic Sources of Dispute Initiation in Authoritarian Regimes, 1950-1992|journal=American Journal of Political Science|pages=113–126|date=2006|volume=50|issue=1|jstor=3694260|doi=10.1111/j.1540-5907.2006.00173.x}}</ref>
 
In an influential 1964 work,<ref>Richard Shorten, ''[https://books.google.com/books?id=8ffbV8ZpQ3MC&printsec=frontcover#v=onepage&q&f=false Modernism and Totalitarianism: Rethinking the Intellectual Sources of Nazism and Stalinism, 1945 to the Present] {{Webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20200109112534/https://books.google.com/books?id=8ffbV8ZpQ3MC&printsec=frontcover#v=onepage&q&f=false |date=2020-01-09 }}'' (Palgrave Macmillan, 2012), p. 256 (note 67): "For a long time the authoritative definition of authoritarianism was that of Juan J. Linz."</ref> the political scientist [[Juan Linz]] defined authoritarianism as possessing four qualities:
# Limited [[Pluralism (political philosophy)|political pluralism]], realized with constraints on the [[legislature]], [[Political party|political parties]] and [[interest group]]s.
# [[Political legitimacy]] based upon appeals to emotion and identification of the regime as a necessary evil to combat "easily recognizable societal problems, such as [[underdevelopment]] or [[insurgency]]".
# Minimal [[political mobilization]], and suppression of anti-regime activities.
# Ill-defined executive powers, often vague and shifting, which extends the power of the executive.<ref>Juan J. Linz, "An Authoritarian Regime: The Case of Spain," in [[Erik Allardt]] and Yrjö Littunen, eds., ''Cleavages, Ideologies, and Party Systems: Contributions to Comparative Political Sociology'' (Helsinki: Transactions of the Westermarck Society), pp. 291-342. Reprinted in Erik Allardt & Stine Rokkan, eds., Mas Politics: Studies in Political Sociology (New York: Free Press, 1970), pp.251-83, 374-81.</ref><ref>Gretchen Casper, [https://books.google.com/books?id=7ZVDjmr18f4C&printsec=frontcover#v=onepage&q&f=false Fragile Democracies: The Legacies of Authoritarian Rule] {{Webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20200109112527/https://books.google.com/books?id=7ZVDjmr18f4C&printsec=frontcover#v=onepage&q&f=false |date=2020-01-09 }} (University of Pittsburgh Press, 1995), pp. 40–50 (citing Linz 1964).</ref>
 
Minimally defined, an authoritarian government lacks free and competitive [[direct election]]s to [[legislature]]s, free and competitive direct or [[indirect election]]s for [[Executive (government)|executives]], or both.<ref name="Svolik2223">{{Cite book|url=https://campuspress.yale.edu/svolik/the-politics-of-authoritarian-rule/|title=The Politics of Authoritarian Rule|author=Milan W. Svolik|publisher=Cambridge University Press|date=2012|pages=22–23|quote=I follow Przeworski et al. (2000), Boix (2003), and Cheibub et al. (2010) in defining a ''dictatorship'' as an independent country that fails to satisfy at least one of the following two criteria for democracy: (1) free and competitive legislative elections and (2) an executive that is elected either directly in free and competitive presidential elections or indirectly by a legislature in parliamentary systems. Throughout this book, I use the terms ''dictatorship'' and ''authoritarian regime'' interchangeably and refer to the heads of these regimes' governments as simply ''dictators'' or ''authoritarian leaders'', regardless of their formal title.|access-date=2019-10-21|archive-date=2019-10-21|archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20191021220420/https://campuspress.yale.edu/svolik/the-politics-of-authoritarian-rule/|url-status=live}}</ref> Broadly defined, authoritarian states include countries that lack the [[civil liberties]] such as [[freedom of religion]], or countries in which the government and the [[Opposition (politics)|opposition]] do not alternate in power at least once following free elections.<ref name="Svolik20">{{Cite book|url=https://campuspress.yale.edu/svolik/the-politics-of-authoritarian-rule/|title=The Politics of Authoritarian Rule|author=Milan W. Svolik|publisher=Cambridge University Press|date=2012|page=20|quote=More demanding criteria may require that governments respect certain civil liberties&ndash; such as the freedom of religion (Schmitter and Karl 1991; Zakaria 1997) &mdash; or that the incumbent government and the opposition alternate in power at least once after the first seemingly free election (Huntington 1993; Przeworski et al. 2000; Cheibib et al. 2010).|access-date=2019-10-21|archive-date=2019-10-21|archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20191021220420/https://campuspress.yale.edu/svolik/the-politics-of-authoritarian-rule/|url-status=live}}</ref> Authoritarian states might contain nominally democratic institutions such as political parties, legislatures and elections which are managed to entrench authoritarian rule and can feature fraudulent, non-competitive elections.<ref name="SvolikNominal">{{cite book|url=https://campuspress.yale.edu/svolik/the-politics-of-authoritarian-rule/|title=The Politics of Authoritarian Rule|author=Milan W. Svolik|publisher=Cambridge University Press|date=2012|pages=8, 12, 22, 25, 88, 117|access-date=2019-10-21|archive-date=2019-10-21|archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20191021220420/https://campuspress.yale.edu/svolik/the-politics-of-authoritarian-rule/|url-status=live}}</ref> Since 1946, the share of authoritarian states in the international political system increased until the mid-1970s, but declined from then until the year 2000.<ref name="Svolik25">{{Cite book|url=https://campuspress.yale.edu/svolik/the-politics-of-authoritarian-rule/|title=The Politics of Authoritarian Rule|author=Milan W. Svolik|publisher=Cambridge University Press|date=2012|page=25|access-date=2019-10-21|archive-date=2019-10-21|archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20191021220420/https://campuspress.yale.edu/svolik/the-politics-of-authoritarian-rule/|url-status=live}}</ref>
 
== Карактеристике ==
Authoritarianism is characterized by highly concentrated and [[centralized government]] power maintained by [[political repression]] and the exclusion of potential challengers. It uses [[Political party|political parties]] and mass organizations to mobilize people around the goals of the regime.<ref name="Vestal">Theodore M. Vesta, ''[{{Google books|plainurl=yes|id=XWXtXOl56KkC&c|page=17}} Ethiopia: A Post-Cold War African State]''. Greenwood, 1999, p. 17.</ref> [[Adam Przeworski]] has theorized that "authoritarian equilibrium rests mainly on lies, fear and economic prosperity".<ref>{{cite book|title=Democracy and the Market: Political and Economic Reforms in Eastern Europe and Latin America|url=https://archive.org/details/democracymarket00prze|url-access=registration|page=[https://archive.org/details/democracymarket00prze/page/58 58]|publisher=Cambridge University Press|date=26 July 1991|isbn=9780521423359|first=Adam|last=Przeworski}}</ref>
 
Authoritarianism also tends to embrace the informal and unregulated exercise of [[Power (politics)|political power]], a leadership that is "self-appointed and even if elected cannot be displaced by citizens' free choice among competitors", the arbitrary deprivation of [[civil liberties]] and little tolerance for meaningful [[Opposition (politics)|opposition]].<ref name="Vestal"/> A range of [[social control]]s also attempt to stifle [[civil society]] while political stability is maintained by control over and support of the [[armed forces]], a bureaucracy staffed by the regime and creation of [[allegiance]] through various means of [[socialization]] and indoctrination.<ref name="Vestal"/>
 
Authoritarianism is marked by "indefinite political tenure" of the ruler or [[ruling party]] (often in a [[one-party state]]) or other authority.<ref name="Vestal"/> The transition from an authoritarian system to a more [[Democracy|democratic]] form of government is referred to as [[democratization]].<ref name="Vestal"/>
 
== Референце ==
{{reflist}}
 
== Литература ==
{{refbegin|30em}}
* Linz, Juan J. (1964). "An Authoritarian Regime: The Case of Spain". In Allard, Eric; Littunen, Yrjo. ''Cleavages, Ideologies and Party Systems''. Helsinki: Academic Bookstore.
* Frantz; Erica; Geddes, Barbara; Wrights, Joseph (2018). ''How Dictatorships Work''. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. {{doi|10.1017/9781316336182}}.
* Berger, Mark T. (August 1997). "Singapore's Authoritarian Capitalism: Asian Values, Free Market Illusions, and Political Dependency by Christopher Lingle". "Book Reviews". ''The Journal of Asian Studies''. Cambridge University Press. '''56''' (3) 853–854. {{doi|10.1017/S0021911800035129}}. {{jstor|i325583}}.
* Bhasin, Balbir B. (2007). "Fostering Entrepreneurship: Developing a Risktaking Culture in Singapore". ''New England Journal of Entrepreneurship''. '''10''' (2): 39–50. {{ISSN|1550-333X}}. Retrieved 23 April 2020.
* Budhwar, Pawan S., ed. (2004). ''Managing Human Resources in Asia-Pacific''. Psychology Press. p. 221. {{ISBN|9780415300063}}.
* Lingle, Christopher; Owens, Amanda J.; Rowley, Charles K., eds. (Summer 1998). "Singapore and Authoritarian Capitalism". ''The Locke Luminary''. '''I''' (1).
* {{cite web|url=https://foreignpolicy.com/2013/11/12/the-mother-of-all-experiments-in-authoritarian-capitalism-is-about-to-begin/|title=The Mother of All Experiments in Authoritarian Capitalism Is About to Begin|last=Drezner|first=Daniel|date=12 November 2013|work=Foreign Policy|access-date=4 September 2018|archive-date=29 October 2018|archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20181029071534/https://foreignpolicy.com/2013/11/12/the-mother-of-all-experiments-in-authoritarian-capitalism-is-about-to-begin/|url-status=live}}
* {{cite web|url=https://www.ft.com/content/f820a134-c509-11dc-811a-0000779fd2ac|title=Illiberal capitalism|date=17 January 2008|work=Financial Times|access-date=28 August 2018|archive-date=2 June 2018|archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20180602175624/https://www.ft.com/content/f820a134-c509-11dc-811a-0000779fd2ac|url-status=live}}
* {{cite journal|last=Gat|first=Azar|date=August 2007|url=https://www.foreignaffairs.com/articles/china/2007-07-01/return-authoritarian-great-powers|title=The Return of Authoritarian Great Powers|journal=Foreign Affairs|publisher=Council on Foreign Relations|volume=86|issue=4|pages=59–69|jstor=20032415|access-date=19 October 2018|archive-date=2 April 2015|archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20150402105353/http://www.foreignaffairs.com/articles/62644/azar-gat/the-return-of-authoritarian-great-powers|url-status=live}}
* {{cite journal|last=Fuchs|first=Christian|date=29 June 2017|url=https://westminsterresearch.westminster.ac.uk/download/3d32b4bfd248b58cca5d0f68ede8ee936bb6e3dd0572344e82c86089553b79b0/570163/Neumann_Christian_tripleC.pdf|title=The Relevance of Franz L. Neumann's Critical Theory in 2017: Anxiety and Politics in the New Age of Authoritarian Capitalism|journal=Media, Culture & Society|volume=40|issue=5|pages=779–791|doi=10.1177/0163443718772147|access-date=8 July 2020|archive-date=13 October 2019|archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20191013201910/https://westminsterresearch.westminster.ac.uk/download/3d32b4bfd248b58cca5d0f68ede8ee936bb6e3dd0572344e82c86089553b79b0/570163/Neumann_Christian_tripleC.pdf|url-status=live}}
* {{cite journal|last=Fuchs|first=Christian|date=27 April 2018|url=http://fuchs.uti.at/wp-content/AuthoritarianCapitalism_MCS.pdf|title=Authoritarian Capitalism, Authoritarian Movements, Authoritarian Communication|journal=tripleC|volume=15|issue=2|pages=637–650|doi=10.1177/0163443718772147|access-date=8 July 2020|archive-date=13 October 2019|archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20191013201908/http://fuchs.uti.at/wp-content/AuthoritarianCapitalism_MCS.pdf|url-status=live}}
* {{cite journal|url=http://www.ub.edu/graap/nazi.pdf|title=Against the mainstream: Nazi privatization in 1930s Germany|last=Bel|first=Germà|date=April 2006|journal=Economic History Review|publisher=University of Barcelona|volume=63|issue=1|pages=34–55|doi=10.1111/j.1468-0289.2009.00473.x|access-date=8 July 2020|archive-date=28 December 2019|archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20191228060054/http://www.ub.edu/graap/nazi.pdf|url-status=live|hdl=2445/11716|hdl-access=free}}
* {{cite book|last=Arato|first=Andrew|year=1982|chapter=Critical Sociology and Authoritarian State Socialism|editor-last1=Held|editor-first1=David|editor-last2=Thompson|editor-first2=John|title=Habermas, Critical Debates|edition=paperback|publisher=The MIT Press|pages=196–218|doi=10.1007/978-1-349-16763-0_12}}
* {{cite journal|last=Arato|first=Andrew|year=1983|title=Immanent Critique and Authoritarian Socialism|journal=Canadian Journal of Political and Social Theory|volume=7|issue=1–2|jstor=41801955}}
* {{cite book|last=Arato|first=Andrew|year=1991|chapter=Social Theory, Civil Society, and the Transformation of Authoritarian Socialism|editor-last1=Arato|editor-first1=Andrew|editor-last2=Feher|editor-first2=Ferenc|title=Crisis and Reform in Eastern Europe|location=New Brunswick, New Jersey|publisher=Transaction Publishers|pages=1–26|isbn=9781412820677}}
* {{cite book|last=Arato|first=Andrew|year=2016|title=From Neo-Marxism to Democratic Theory: Essays on the Critical Theory of Soviet-type Societies: Essays on the Critical Theory of Soviet-type Societies|publisher=Routledge|isbn=9781315487717}}
* {{cite journal|last=Barnes|first=Ian|year=2003|title=A fascist Trojan horse: Maurice Bardegraceche, fascism and authoritarian socialism|journal=Patterns of Prejudice|volume=37|issue=2|pages=177–194|doi=10.1080/0031322032000084697}}
* {{cite journal|last=Lingle|first=Christopher|year=1990|title=Strategies of structural reform of authoritarian socialism: The role of private property and markets|journal=Communist Economics|volume=2|issue=4|pages=499–507|doi=10.1080/14631379008427660}}
* {{cite book|last=Meijer|first=Roel|year=2002|title=The Quest for Modernity: Secular Liberal and Left-wing Political Thought in Egypt, 1945–1958|publisher=Psychology Press|isbn=9780700712472}}
* {{cite journal|last=Swilling|first=Mark|date=May 1992|title=Socialism, Democracy and Civil Society: The Case for Associational Socialism|journal=Theoria: A Journal of Social and Political Theory|publisher=Berghahn Books|issue=79|pages=75–82|jstor=41801955}}
{{refend}}
 
==Спољашње везе==
{{Commons category|Authoritarianism}}
* {{cite web|url=http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/europe/931018.stm|title=Milosevic: Serbia's fallen strongmany |date=30 March 2001|publisher=BBC|access-date=12 December 2018}}</ref><ref>{{cite book|last=Pribićević|title="Serbia—From Authoritarian Regime to Democracy." Serbian Studies: Journal of the North American Society for Serbian Studies|publisher=Project MUSE}}
 
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