Adi Šankara

(преусмерено са Adi Shankara)

Adi Šankaračarja (Sanskrit: आदि शङ्कराआचार्य }) bio je indijski filozof i teolog iz 8. veka[2] koji je konsolidovao doktrine Advajta Vedanta.[1][3][note 1] On je zaslužan za objedinjavanje i uspostavljanje glavnih tokova misli u hinduizmu.[5][6][7]

Adi Šankara
Adi Shankara with Disciples, by Raja Ravi Varma (1904)
Adi Šankara sa sledbenicima, rad Raža Ravi Varme (1904)
Ime po rođenjuŠankara
Datum rođenja788.[1]
Mjesto rođenjaKaladi
sadašnji Kočin, Kerala
 Indija
Datum smrti820.[1] (starost 32)
Mjesto smrtiKedarnat
sadašnji Utarakand
 Indija
PrebivališteIndija
Državljanstvoindijsko
Zanimanjefilozof i teolog

Njegovi radovi na sanskrtu raspravljaju o jedinstvu atmana i Nirgune Brahmana „brahmana bez atributa”.[8] On je napisao bogate komentare o vedskom kanonu (Brahma Sutras, glavnim Upanišadima i Bhagavadgiti) u prilog svojoj tezi.[9] Njegova dela obrađuju ideje pronađene u Upanišadima. Šankarove publikacije su kritikovale ritualno orijentisanu školu hinduizma Mimamsa.[10] On je takođe objasnio ključnu razliku između hinduizma i budizma, navodeći da hinduizam tvrdi da „Atman (duša, ja) postoji”, dok budizam tvrdi da „nema duše, nema sebstva”.[11][12][13]

Šankara je putovao širom Indijskog potkontinenta kako bi propagirao svoju filozofiju kroz diskurse i debate sa drugim misliocima. On je uspostavio važnost monaškog života kakav je sankcionisan u Upanišadima i Brahma Sutri, u vremenu kada je škola Mimamsa uspostavila strogi ritual i ismejavala monaštvo. Smatra se da je on osnovao četiri matasa („manastira”), koji su pomogli u istorijskom razvoju, oživljavanju i širenju Advajta Vedante, te je poznat kao najveći revivalista.[14] Smatra se da je Adi Šankara organizator monaškog reda Dašanami i da je objedinio tradiciju Šanmata. On je poznat i kao Adi Šankaračarija, Šankara Bagavatpada, (Ādi) Śaṅkarācārya, Śaṅkara Bhagavatpāda i Śaṅkara Bhagavatpādācārya.

NapomeneУреди

  1. ^ Modern scholarship places Shankara in the earlier part of the 8th century CE (c. 700–750).[3] Earlier generations of scholars proposed 788–820 CE.[3] Other proposals are 686–718 CE, 44 BCE,[4] or as early as 509–477 BCE.

ReferenceУреди

  1. 1,0 1,1 1,2 Sharma 1962, стр. vi.
  2. ^ „Shankara | Indian philosopher”. Encyclopedia Britannica. 
  3. 3,0 3,1 3,2 Comans 2000, стр. 163.
  4. ^ Y. Keshava Menon, The Mind of Adi Shankaracharya 1976 pp. 108
  5. ^ Johannes de Kruijf and Ajaya Sahoo (2014), Indian Transnationalism Online: New Perspectives on Diaspora. ISBN 978-1-4724-1913-2. стр. 105., Quote: "In other words, according to Adi Shankara's argument, the philosophy of Advaita Vedanta stood over and above all other forms of Hinduism and encapsulated them. This then united Hinduism; (...) Another of Adi Shankara's important undertakings which contributed to the unification of Hinduism was his founding of a number of monastic centers."
  6. ^ Shankara, Student's Encyclopedia Britannia – India (2000), Volume 4, Encyclopaedia Britannica Publishing. ISBN 978-0-85229-760-5. стр. 379., Quote: "Shankaracharya, philosopher and theologian, most renowned exponent of the Advaita Vedanta school of philosophy, from whose doctrines the main currents of modern Indian thought are derived.";
    David Crystal (2004), The Penguin Encyclopedia, Penguin Books, pp. 1353, Quote: "[Shankara] is the most famous exponent of Advaita Vedanta school of Hindu philosophy and the source of the main currents of modern Hindu thought."
  7. ^ Christophe Jaffrelot (1998), The Hindu Nationalist Movement in India, Columbia University Press. ISBN 978-0-231-10335-0. стр. 2., Quote: "The main current of Hinduism – if not the only one – which became formalized in a way that approximates to an ecclesiastical structure was that of Shankara".
  8. ^ Sri Adi Shankaracharya, Sringeri Sharada Peetham, India
  9. ^ Pattanaik, Devdutt. „How Adi Shankaracharya united a fragmented land with philosophy, poetry and pilgrimage”. Scroll.in. 
  10. ^ Shyama Kumar Chattopadhyaya (2000) The Philosophy of Sankar's Advaita Vedanta, Sarup & Sons, New Delhi ISBN 81-7625-222-0
  11. ^ Edward Roer (Translator), to Brihad Aranyaka Upanishad. Shankara's Introduction на сајту Гугл књиге
  12. ^ Edward Roer (Translator), Shankara's Introduction, стр. 3, на сајту Гугл књиге to Brihad Aranyaka Upanishad at pp. 3, OCLC 19373677
  13. ^ KN Jayatilleke (2010), Early Buddhist Theory of Knowledge. ISBN 978-81-208-0619-1. стр. 246-249., from note 385 onwards;
    Steven Collins (1994), Religion and Practical Reason (Editors: Frank Reynolds, David Tracy), State Univ of New York Press. ISBN 978-0-7914-2217-5. стр. 64.; Quote: "Central to Buddhist soteriology is the doctrine of not-self (Pali: anattā, Sanskrit: anātman, the opposed doctrine of ātman is central to Brahmanical thought). Put very briefly, this is the [Buddhist] doctrine that human beings have no soul, no self, no unchanging essence.";
    Edward Roer (Translator), Shankara's Introduction на сајту Гугл књиге]
    Katie Javanaud (2013), Is The Buddhist 'No-Self' Doctrine Compatible With Pursuing Nirvana?, Philosophy Now;
    John C. Plott et al. (2000), Global History of Philosophy: The Axial Age, Volume 1, Motilal Banarsidass. ISBN 978-81-208-0158-5. стр. 63., Quote: "The Buddhist schools reject any Ātman concept. As we have already observed, this is the basic and ineradicable distinction between Hinduism and Buddhism".

LiteraturaУреди

Spoljašnje vezeУреди