Starogrčka filozofija

Филозофско порекло и темељ западне цивилизације
(преусмерено са Ancient Greek philosophy)

Starogrčka filozofija je nastala u 6. veku pre nove ere i nastavila se tokom helenističkog perioda i doba u kojem su Grčka i većina grčkih naselja bile deo Rimskog carstva. Filozofija je korišćena kao vid shvatanja sveta sa nereligiozne perspektive. Ona se bavila širokim spektrom predmeta, uključujući astronomiju, matematiku, političku filozofiju, etiku, metafiziku, ontologiju, logiku, biologiju, retoriku i estetiku.[1]

Atinska škola (1509–1511) slikara Rafaela, prikazuje poznate grčke filozofe u jednom idealizovanom okruženju inspirisanom arhitekturom antičke Grčke

Grčka filozofija је uticala na veliki deo zapadne kulture od njenog nastanka. Alfred Nort Vajthed је jednom napomenuo: „Najsigurnija opšta karakterizacija evropske filozofske tradicije je ta da se sastoji od niza fusnota do Platona”.[2] Jasne, neprekinute linije uticaja vode od starih grčkih i helenističkih filozofa do rane islamske filozofije, srednjovekovnog skolastizma, evropske renesanse i doba prosvetiteljstva.[3]

Na grčku filozofiju donekle su uticale starija literatura o mudrosti i mitološke kosmogonije drevnog Bliskog Istoka, mada se i dalje raspravlja o obimu tog uticaja. Klasicista Martin Litčfild Vest navodi, „kontakt s orjentalnom kosmologijom i teologijom pomogao je u liberaciji imaginacije ranih grčkih filozofa; to im je zasigurno dalo mnoge sugestivne ideje. Ali oni su sebe učili razumu. Filozofija je, kako je mi razumemo, grčka tvorevina”.[4]

Kasnija filozofska tradicija bila je u tolikoj meri pod uticajem Sokrata, kao što ga je predstavio Platon, da se filozofija razvijena pre Sokrata konvencionalno naziva predsokratskom filozofijom. Periodi koji su sledili, do i nakon ratova Aleksandra Velikog, su periodi „klasične grčke” i „helenističke” filozofije.

Prеsokratska filozofijaУреди

Konvencija o imenovanju onih filozofa koji su bili aktivni pre Sokratove smrti kao presokratovci se ustalila nakon izdavanja Herman Dilsove pulikacije Fragmente der Vorsokratiker 1903. godine, iako taj pojam nije nastao u njoj.[5] Taj izraz se smatra korisnim, jer je ono što je postalo poznato pod nazivom „atenska škola” (sastavljena od Sokrata, Platona i Aristotela) nagovestilo uspon novog pristupa filozofiji. Teza Fridriha Ničea da je ovaj pomak započeo sa Platonom, a ne sa Sokratom (i otuda njegova nomenklatura „predplatonske filozofije”) nije sprečila prevladavanje „predsokratovske” distinkcije.[6]

Predsokratisti su se prvenstveno bavili kosmologijom, ontologijom i matematikom. Oni su se razlikovali od „nefilozofa” po tome što su odbacivali mitološka objašnjenja u korist argumentovanog diskursa.[7]

ReferenceУреди

  1. ^ „Ancient Greek philosophy, Herodotus, famous ancient Greek philosophers. Ancient Greek philosophy at Hellenism.Net”. www.hellenism.net. Приступљено 2019-01-28. 
  2. ^ Alfred North Whitehead (1929), Process and Reality, Part II, Chap. I, Sect. I.
  3. ^ Kevin Scharp (Department of Philosophy, Ohio State University) – Diagrams Архивирано 2014-10-31 на сајту Wayback Machine.
  4. ^ Griffin, Jasper; Boardman, John; Murray, Oswyn (2001). The Oxford history of Greece and the Hellenistic world. Oxford [Oxfordshire]: Oxford University Press. стр. 140. ISBN 978-0-19-280137-1. 
  5. ^ Greg Whitlock, preface to The Pre-Platonic Philosophers, by Friedrich Nietzsche (Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 2001), xiv–xvi.
  6. ^ Greg Whitlock, preface to The Pre-Platonic Philosophers, by Friedrich Nietzsche (Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 2001), xiii–xix.
  7. ^ John Burnet, Greek Philosophy: Thales to Plato, 3rd ed. (London: A & C Black Ltd., 1920), 3–16. Scanned version from Internet Archive

LiteraturaУреди

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Spoljašnje vezeУреди