Rana istorija radija je istorija tehnologije koji proizvodi i primenjuje radio instrumente koji koriste radio talase. Unutar vremenskog okvira radija, mnogi ljudi su doprineli teoriji i izumima u onome što je postalo radio.[1] Razvoj radija počeo je kao „bežična telegrafija”.[1] Kasnija radio-istorija sve više uključuje pitanja emitovanja.

PregledУреди

PronalazakУреди

Ideja bežične komunikacije prethodila je otkriću „radija” sa eksperimentima u „bežičnoj telegrafiji” induktivnom i kapacitivnom indukcijom i prenosom kroz zemlju, vodu, pa čak i voznim kolosecima od 1830-ih dalje. Džejms Klerk Maksvel je u teorijskom i matematičkom obliku pokazao 1864. godine da se elektromagnetni talasi mogu širiti kroz slobodan prostor.[2][3] Smatra se da je prvi namerni prenos signala pomoću elektromagnetnih talasa izvršen u eksperimentu Dejvida Edvarda Hjuza oko 1880. godine, iako se to tada smatralo indukcijom. Godine 1888, Hajnrih Rudolf Herc bio je u stanju da uverljivo dokaže prenos elektromagnetnim talasima kroz vazduhu u eksperimentu koji je potvrdio Makvelovu teoriju elektromagnetizma.

Nakon otkrića ovih „Hercovih talasa” (prišlo je skoro 20 godina dok se pojam „radio” univerzalno ustalio za ovu vrstu elektromagnetnog zračenja)[4] mnogi naučnici i izumitelji eksperimentirali su sa bežičnim prenosom, neki od kojih su pokušavali da razviju sistem komunikacije, neki namerno koristeći ove nove hercove talase. Makvelova teorija koja pokazuje da su svetlosni i hercovi elektromagnetni talasi isti fenomen na različitim talasnim dužinama navela je „Makvelijanske” naučnike poput Džona Perija, Frederika Tomasa Troutona i Aleksandra Trotera da pretpostave da će biti analogni optičkoj signalizaciji[5][6] Godine 1892, fizičar Vilijam Kruks pisao je o mogućnostima bežične telegrafije zasnovane na hercovima talasima,[7] a 1893. Tesla je predložio sistem za prenos inteligencije i bežične energije koristeći zemlju kao medijum.[8] Drugi, kao što su Amos Dolbear, Ser Oliver Lodž, Redžinald Fesenden,[9] i Aleksandar Popov,[10] bili su uključeni u razvoj komponenti i teorije uključenih u prenos i prijem vazdušnih elektromagnetnih talasa u okviru svog teorijskog rada ili kao potencijalnog sredstva za masovnu komunikaciju.

Tokom nekoliko godina počevši od 1894. italijanski pronalazač Guljelmo Markoni izgradio je prvi celokupni, komercijalno uspešni bežični telegrafski sistem zasnovan na hercovim talasima u vazduhu (radio prenos).[11] Markoni je demonstrirao primenu radija u vojnim i pomorskim komunikacijama i osnovao kompaniju za razvoj i širenje radiokomunikacionih usluga i opreme.

ReferenceУреди

  1. 1,0 1,1 "Who Invented Radio Technology?" by Mary Bellis (ThoughtCo.com)
  2. ^ „James Clerk Maxwell (1831-1879)”. (sparkmuseum.com). 
  3. ^ Baierlein, Ralph (1992). Newton to Einstein: The Trail of Light. Cambridge University Press. Приступљено 3. 2. 2018. 
  4. ^ „Section 22: Word Origins”. earlyradiohistory.us. 
  5. ^ W. Bernard Carlson, Tesla: Inventor of the Electrical Age, 2013, pages 125-126
  6. ^ Sungook Hong, Wireless: From Marconi's Black-box to the Audion, MIT Press, 2001, page 2
  7. ^ Hong (2001) pages 5-10
  8. ^ T. K. Sarkar, Robert Mailloux, Arthur A. Oliner, M. Salazar-Palma, Dipak L. Sengupta, History of Wireless, 2006, page 271
  9. ^ Bishop, Don. „Who Invented Radio?”. Архивирано из оригинала на датум 30. 12. 2016. Приступљено 24. 2. 2006. 
  10. ^ Rybak, James P. „Alexander Popov: Russia's Radio Pioneer”. Архивирано из оригинала на датум 12. 4. 2014. 
  11. ^ John W. Klooster. Icons of Invention: the Makers of the Modern World from Gutenberg to Gates. ABC-CLIO. Приступљено 3. 2. 2018. 

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