Potrošačka poljoprivreda

Potrošačka poljoprivreda nastaje kada poljoprivrednici uzgajaju prehrambene useve kako bi zadovoljili svoje porodične potrebe.[1] U potrošačkoj poljoprivredi, poljoprivredni proizvod je usmeren na opstanak i uglavnom je za lokalne potrebe sa malo ili nimalo viška. Odluke o sadnji donose se uglavnom imajući u vidu porodične potrebe tokom naredne godine, a tržišne cene su sekundarni kriterijum.[1] Toni Voters[2] navodi: „Potrošački paori su ljudi koji uzgajaju ono što jedu, grade vlastite kuće i žive bez redovne kupovine na pijaci.”[3][1]"

Bakverski zemljoradnik koji radi na svom taro polju na obroncima planine Kamerun (2005).

Uprkos primatu samodovoljnosti u samostalnom uzgoju, danas većina poljoprivrednih farmi takođe u određenoj meri učestvuje u trgovini, mada se obično radi o robi koja nije neophodna za opstanak, a može uključivati šećer, gvozdene krovne ploče, bicikle, polovnu odeću, i tako dalje. Većina potrošačkih poljoprivrednika u današnje vreme živi u zemljama u razvoju.[4] Iako je njihova količina trgovine merena gotovinom manja od one kod potrošača u zemljama sa modernim složenim tržištima, mnogi imaju važne trgovinske kontakte i trgovinske predmete koje mogu proizvesti zbog svojih posebnih veština ili posebnog pristupa resursima koji se cene na tržištu.[4]

Potrošačka poljoprivreda ima nekoliko prepoznatljivih karakteristika, kao što su mali zahtevi za kapitalom/finansijama, uglavnom se praktikuju mešoviti usevi, ograničena je upotreba agrohemikalija, npr. pesticida i đubriva, koriste se neusavršene sojeve useva i životinja, malo je ili nema viška za prodaju, dolazi do šikoke upotrebe grubih/tradicionalnih oruđa kao što su motike, mačete/kratke sablje, uglavnom se fokus stavlja na proizvodnju useva za hranu, i to se čini na malim rasutim zemljišnim parcelama, koristi porodičnu/nekvalifikovanu radnu snagu, i prinos je nizak.

IstorijaУреди

Potrošačka poljoprivreda je preovlađivala u delovima Azije, posebno Indije, a kasnije se pojavila u raznim oblastima, uključujući Meksiko, gde je bila bazirana na kukuruzu, i u Andima, gde je bila zasnovana na pripitomljavanju krompira.

Potrošačka poljoprivreda je bila dominantni način proizvodnje u svetu sve do nedavno, kada je tržišni kapitalizam postao široko rasprostranjen.[5] Uzgojna hortikultura se verovatno samostalno razvila u jugoistočnoj Aziji i Papui Novoj Gvineji.

Potrošačka poljoprivreda u velikoj meri je nestala u Evropi do početka Prvog svetskog rata, a u Severnoj Americi sa migracijom napoličara i stanarskih ratara sa američkog juga i srednjeg zapada tokom 1930-ih i 1940-ih godina.[2] Sve do 1950-ih, bilo je uobičajeno da se na porodičnim poljoprivrednim imanjima u Severnoj Americi i Evropi uzgaja hrana pretežno za sopstvenu porodice i da se pravi veći deo odeće, mada je prodaja poljoprivrednih proizvoda donosila dovoljno novca za kupovinu robe. Mnogi od tih predmeta, kao i povremene usluge lekara, veterinara, kovača i drugih, često su plaćani putem razmenom, bez korišćenja valute.

U srednjoj i istočnoj Evropi se potrošačka i polupotrošačka poljoprivreda ponovo pojavila u tranzicijskoj ekonomiji od oko 1990. godine.[6]

Savremene prakseУреди

Potrošačka poljoprivreda se nastavlja i danas u velikim delovima ruralne Afrike,[7] i delovima Azije i Latinske Amerike. Tokom 2015. godine, oko 2 milijarde ljudi (nešto više od 25% svetske populacije) u 500 miliona domaćinstava koja žive u ruralnim oblastima zemalja u razvoju opstaju baveći se „maloposedničkom” poljoprivredom, obrađujući manje od 2 hektara (5 akra) zemlje.[8]

ReferenceУреди

  1. 1,0 1,1 1,2 Bisht, I. S.; Pandravada, S. R.; Rana, J. C.; Malik, S. K.; Singh, Archna; Singh, P. B.; Ahmed, Firoz; Bansal, K. C. (14. 9. 2014). „Subsistence Farming, Agrobiodiversity, and Sustainable Agriculture: A Case Study”. Agroecology and Sustainable Food Systems (на језику: енглески). 38 (8): 890—912. ISSN 2168-3565. doi:10.1080/21683565.2014.901273. 
  2. 2,0 2,1 Tony Waters. The Persistence of Subsistence Agriculture: life beneath the level of the marketplace. Lanham, MD: Lexington Books. 2007.
  3. ^ Waters, Tony. (2008). The persistence of subsistence agriculture : life beneath the level of the marketplace. Lexington Books. ISBN 978-0-7391-5876-0. OCLC 839303290. 
  4. 4,0 4,1 Marvin P Miracle, "Subsistence Agriculture: Analytical Problems and Alternative Concepts", American Journal of Agricultural Economics, May 1968, pp. 292–310.
  5. ^ George Reisman. "Capitalism" (1990), p.16
  6. ^ Steffen Abele and Klaus Frohberg (Eds.). "Subsistence Agriculture in Central and Eastern Europe: How to Break the Vicious Circle?" Studies on the Agricultural and Food Sector in Central and Eastern Europe. IAMO, 2003. Архивирано 2011-07-19 на сајту Wayback Machine
  7. ^ Goran Hyden. Beyond Ujamaa in Tanzania: Underdevelopment and an Uncaptured Peasantry. Berkeley: University of California Press. 1980.
  8. ^ Rapsomanikis, George (2015). „The economic lives of smallholder farmers” (PDF). Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. стр. 9. Архивирано (PDF) из оригинала на датум 4. 5. 2016. Приступљено 11. 1. 2018. »About two-thirds of the developing world’s 3 billion rural people live in about 475 million small farm households, working on land plots smaller than 2 hectares.« 

LiteraturaУреди

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Spoljašnje vezeУреди