Stilistika je lingvistička nauka koja proučava pravila i svojstva dobrog jezičkog i književnog stila,[1] retoričke figure i modele sintakse, koji su specifični za različite grupe, kontekste, a posebno književne žanrove.

Kao disciplina, stilistika povezuje književnu kritiku sa lingvistikom. Ona ne funkcioniše kao autonomna oblast sama po sebi, i može se primeniti na razumevanje književnosti i novinarstva, kao i lingvistike.[2][3][4] Izvori za proučavanje stilistike mogu se kretati od kanonskih pisanih dela do popularnih tekstova, od reklamnih kopija do vesti,[5] nefikcije i popularne kulture, kao i političkog i verskog diskursa.[6] Zaista, kako je nedavni rad u oblasti kritičke stilistike,[7] multimodalne stilistike[8] i posredovane stilistike[9] jasno pokazao, neknjiževni tekstovi mogu biti podjednako interesantni stilističarima kao i književni. Drugim rečima, književnost je ovde zamišljena kao „tačka na klini, a ne kao apsolut“.[10][11]

Rani dvadeseti vekУреди

Analiza književnog stila seže do proučavanja klasične retorike, iako moderna stilistika ima svoje korene u ruskom formalizmu[12] i povezanoj Praškoj školi ranog dvadesetog veka.

Godine 1909, Čarls Bali je predložio stilistiku kao posebnu akademsku disciplinu koja bi dopunila sosirovsku lingvistiku. Za Balija, Sosirova lingvistika sama po sebi nije mogla u potpunosti da opiše jezik ličnog izražavanja.[13] Balijev program se dobro uklapa u ciljeve Praške škole.[14]

Prateći ideje ruskih formalista, Praška škola je izgradila koncept prvog plana, gde se pretpostavlja da se pesnički jezik izdvaja od neknjiževnog pozadinskog jezika, putem odstupanja (od normi svakodnevnog jezika) ili paralelizam.[15] Međutim, prema Praškoj školi, ovaj pozadinski jezik nije stalan, te se odnos između poetskog i svakodnevnog jezika stoga uvek menja.[16]

ReferenceУреди

  1. ^ Клајн & Шипка 2006, стр. 1175
  2. ^ Widdowson, H.G. 1975. Stylistics and the teaching of literature. Longman: London. ISBN 0-582-55076-9
  3. ^ Simpson, Paul. 2004. Stylistics : A resource book for students. Routledge p. 2: "Stylistics is a method of textual interpretation in which primacy of place is assigned to language".
  4. ^ Attenborough, F. (2014). "Rape is rape (except when it's not): the media, recontextualisation and violence against women Архивирано на сајту Wayback Machine (5. мај 2020)". Journal of Language Aggression and Conflict. 2(2): 183-203.
  5. ^ Davies, M. (2007) The attraction of opposites: the ideological function of conventional and created oppositions in the construction of in-groups and out-groups in news texts, in L. Jeffries, D. McIntyre, D. Bousfield (eds.) Stylistics and Social Cognition. Amsterdam: Rodopi.
  6. ^ Simpson, Paul. 2004. Stylistics: A resource book for students. Routledge p. 3: "The preferred object of study in stylistics is literature, whether that be institutionally sanctioned 'literature' as high art or more popular 'non-canonical' forms of writing.".
  7. ^ Jeffries, L. (2010) Critical Stylistics. Basingstoke: Palgrave.
  8. ^ Montoro, R. (2006) Analysting literature through films, in G. Watson, S. Zyngier (eds.) Literature and Stylistics for Language Learners: Theory and Practice. Basingstoke: Palgrave, pp. 48-59.
  9. ^ Attenborough, F. (2014) Jokes, pranks, blondes and banter: recontextualising sexism in the British print press, Journal of Gender Studies, 23(2): 137-154.
  10. ^ Jeffries, L., McIntyre, D. (2010) Stylistics. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, p. 2.
  11. ^ Carter, R., Nash, W. (1990) Seeing through Language: a guide to styles of English writing. Oxford: Blackwell.
  12. ^ Lesley Jeffries, Daniel McIntyre, Stylistics, Cambridge University Press, 2010, p 1. ISBN 0-521-72869-X
  13. ^ , Talbot J. Taylor, Mutual Misunderstanding: Scepticism and the Theorizing of Language and Interpretation, Duke University Press, 1992, p 91. ISBN 0-8223-1249-2
  14. ^ Ulrich Ammon, Status and Function of Languages and Language Varieties, Walter de Gruyter, 1989, p 518. ISBN 0-89925-356-3
  15. ^ Katie Wales, A Dictionary of Stylistics, Pearson Education, 2001, p 315. ISBN 0-582-31737-1
  16. ^ Rob Pope, The English Studies Book: an Introduction to Language, Literature and Culture, Routledge, 2002, p 88. ISBN 0-415-25710-7

LiteraturaУреди

  • Клајн, Иван; Шипка, Милан, ур. (2006). „Стилистика”. Велики речник страних речи и израза. Нови Сад: Прометеј. стр. 1175. 
  • David Crystal. 1998. Language Play (London: Penguin)
  • ed. David Birch. 1995. Context and Language: A Functional Linguistic Theory of Register (London, New York: Pinter)
  • Michael Burke. 2010. Literary Reading, Cognition and Emotion: An Exploration of the Oceanic Mind (London and New York: Routledge)
  • Richard Bradford. 1985. A Dictionary of Linguistics and Phonetics, 2nd edition (Oxford: Basil Blackwell)
  • Richard Bradford. 1997. Stylistics (London and New York: Routledge)
  • Richard Bradford. 1997. The Cambridge Encyclopedia of Language, 2nd edition (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press)
  • Roger Fowler. 1996. Linguistic Criticism, 2nd edition (Oxford: Oxford University Press)
  • William Downes. 1995. The Language of George Orwell (London: Macmillan Press)
  • William Downes. 1998. Language and Society, 2nd edition (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press)
  • A McIntosh and P Simpson. 1964. The Linguistic Science and Language Teaching (London: Longman)
  • Adrian Pilkington. 1991. 'Poetic Effects', Literary Pragmatics, ed. Roger Sell (London: Routledge)
  • Brian Lamont. 2005. First Impressions (Edinburgh: Penbury Press)
  • ed. Jean Jacques Weber. 1996. The Stylistics Reader: From Roman Jakobson to the Present (London: Arnold Hodder)
  • ed. Thomas A. Sebeok. 1960. Style in Language (Cambridge, MA: MIT Press)
  • Geoffrey Leech and Michael H. Short. 1981. Style in Fiction: A Linguistic Introduction to English Fictional Prose (London: Longman)
  • George Orwell. 1949. Nineteen Eighty-Four (London: Heinemann)
  • H. G. Widdowson. 1992. Practical Stylistics (Oxford: Oxford University Press)
  • Hernández-Campoy, Juan M. (2016). Sociolinguistic Styles. Wiley-Blackwell. ISBN 978-1-118-73764-4. 
  • Katie Wales. 2001. A Dictionary of Stylistics, 2nd edition, (Harlow: Longman)
  • MAK Halliday. 1964. Inside the Whale and Other Essays (London: Penguin Books)
  • MAK Halliday. 1978. Language as Social Semiotic: The Social Interpretation of Language and Meaning (London: Edward Arnold)
  • Michael Toolan. 1998. Language in Literature: An Introduction to Stylistics (London: Hodder Arnold)
  • PM Wetherill. 1974. Literary Text: An Examination of Critical Methods (Oxford: Basil Blackwell)

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