Vest (ijek. vijest), najkraći je, najjednostavniji i najpopularniji oblik pisane ili govorne i vizuelne informacije o nekom događaju, pojavi, društvenom ponašanju ili nekoj ličnosti. Preuveličana ili lažna vest u medijima naziva se „novinska patka“.

Vest je glavni žanr novinarskog oblikovanja novosti; otuda i naziv mnogih dnevnih listova i informativnih emisija. Sama reč vest potiče iz jezika starih Slovena kada je značila – „znanje“. Pod uticajem Slovena pruska reč weist znači isto što i poljski oblik wiešć. Time se vest definiše kao znanje; novo – a postaje i komunikološka definicija da je informacija svako novo saznanje. Treći srpski list štampan u Beču 1792. imao je ime „Slaveno-serbskija vjedomosti“.

ZnačenjeUredi

EtimologijaUredi

Engleska reč news razvijena je u 14. veku kao specijalni vid upotrebe množine reči „new”. U srednjoengleskom jeziku, ekvivalentna reč je bila newes, kao što je u francuskom nouvelles i u nemačkom Neues. Slični razvojni putevi prisutni su u slovenskim jezicima, češka i slovačka reč noviny (od nový, „novo”), što je kognat poljskog nowiny, bugarskog novini i ruskog novosti - i u kelstskim jezicima: velško newyddion (od newydd) i kornsko nowodhow (od nowydh).[1][2]

Džesiki Garecon Finč se pridaju zasluge za formiranje fraze „aktuelni događaji” (engl. current events) dok je predavala na Barnard koledžu tokom 1890-ih.[3]

NovostUredi

Kao što proizilazi iz imena, „vesti” obično konotiraju prezentaciju novih informacija.[4][5] Novina vestima daje neizvestan kvalitet koji je razlikuje od pažljivijeg istraživanja istorije ili drugih naučnih disciplina.[5][6][7] Dok istoričari imaju tendenciju da događaje posmatraju kao uzročno povezane manifestacije osnovnih procesa, vesti uglavnom opisuju događaje izolovano i isključuju raspravu o odnosima među njima.[8] Vesti tipično opisuju svet u sadašnjosti ili u neposrednoj prošlosti, čak i kad su se najvažniji aspekti vesti dogodili davno u prošlosti - ili se očekuje da će se oni pojaviti u budućnosti. Da bi se oformila vest, proces koji je u toku mora da ima neki „iskaz”, događaj u vremenu koji ga usidrava na sadašnji trenutak.[8][9] Slično tome, vesti se često bave aspektima stvarnosti koji izgledaju neobično, devijantno ili neobično.[10] Otuda čuveni izreka da „pas ujeda čoveka” nije vest, dok „čovek ujeda psa” jeste.[11]

Još jedna posledica novosti vesti je da, kako nova tehnologija omogućava novim medijima brže širenje vesti, „sporijim” oblicima komunikacije ostaje mogućnost da se udalje od „vesti” i usredsrede na „analizu”.[12]

RobaUredi

Prema nekim teorijama, „vesti” su sve što industrija vesti proje.[13] Novinarstvo, široko shvaćeno na isti način, je čin ili zanimanje prikupljanja i pružanja vesti.[14][15] Sa komercijalne perspektive, vesti su jednostavno jedan ulaz, zajedno sa papirom (ili elektronskim serverom) neophodan za pripremu konačnog proizvoda za distribuciju.[16] Novinska agencija ovaj resurs isporučuje „na veliko”, a izdavači ga poboljšavaju za maloprodaju.[17][18]

ReferenceUredi

  1. ^ "News", Oxford English Dictionary, accessed online, 5 March 2015. "Etymology: Spec. use of plural of new n., after Middle French nouvelles (see novel n.), or classical Latin nova new things, in post-classical Latin also news (from late 13th cent. in British sources), use as noun of neuter plural of novus new (compare classical Latin rēs nova (feminine singular) a new development, a fresh turn of events). Compare later novel n."
  2. ^ „Online Etymology Dictionary”. Pristupljeno 7. 7. 2012. 
  3. ^ „Mrs. John Cosgrave Is Dead Founded Finch Junior College: Was Institution's President Nearly 50 Years; Coined 'Current Events' Phrase”. New York Herald Tribune. 1. 11. 1949. 
  4. ^ Stephens, History of News (1988), p. 13.
  5. 5,0 5,1 Smith,The Newspaper: An International History (1979), p. 7. "In the information which [the newspaper] chose to supply, and in the many sources of information which it took over and reorganized, it contained a bias towards recency or newness; to its readers, it offered regularity of publication. It had to be filled with whatever was available, unable to wait until information of greater clarity or certainty or of wider perspective had accumulated."
  6. ^ Salmon, The Newspaper and the Historian (1923), p. 10. Salmon quotes Théophraste Renaudot: "History is the record of things accomplished. A Gazette is the reflection of feelings and rumors of the time which may or may not be true."
  7. ^ Pettegree, The Invention of News (2014), p. 3. "Even as news became more plentiful in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries, the problem of establishing the veracity of news reports remained acute. The news market—and by the sixteenth century it was a real market—was humming with conflicting reports, some incredible, some all too plausible: lives, fortunes, even the fate of kingdoms could depend upon acting on the right information."
  8. 8,0 8,1 Park, "News as a Form of Knowledge" (1940), pp. 675–676. "News is not history because, for one thing among others, it deals, on the whole, with isolated events and does not seek to relate them to one another either in the form of causal or in the form of teleological sequences."
  9. ^ Schudson, "When? Deadlines, Datelines, and History"; in Reading The News (1986), ed. Manoff & Schudson; pp. 81–82.
  10. ^ Shoemaker & Cohen, News Around the World (2006), pp. 13–14.
  11. ^ Park, "News as a Form of Knowledge" (1940), p. 678.
  12. ^ Stephens, History of News (1988), p. 56. "It is axiomatic in journalism that the fastest medium with the largest potential audience will disseminate the bulk of a community's breaking news. Today that race is being won by television and radio. Consequently, daily newspapers are beginning to underplay breaking news about yesterday's events (already old news to much of their audience) in favor of more analytical perspectives on those events. In other words, dailies are now moving in the direction toward which weeklies retreated when dailies were introduced."
  13. ^ Heyd, Reading newspapers (2012), pp. 35, 82. "... newspapers were defining what news was, categorizing and expanding their domain on the fly. Indeed, Somerville argues that 'news' is not an objective 'historical' concept but one that is defined by the news industry as it creates a commodity sold by publishers to the public."
  14. ^ Stephens, History of News (1988), p. 3. "The term journalism is used broadly here and elsewhere in the book to refer to more than just the production of printed 'journals'; it is the most succinct term we have for the activity of gathering and disseminating news."
  15. ^ Shoemaker & Cohen, News Around the World (2006), p. 7. "[...] for the journalist the assessment of newsworthiness is an operationalization based on the aforementioned conditions. In other words, the practitioner typically constructs a method for fulfilling the daily job requirements. He or she rarely has an underlying theoretical understanding of what defining something or someone as newsworthy entails. To be sure, individual journalists may engage in more abstract musings about their work, but the profession as a whole is content to apply these conditions and does not care that the theory behind the application is not widely understood. Hall (1981, 147) calls news a 'slippery' concept, with journalists defining newsworthiness as those things that get into the news media."
  16. ^ Pettegree, The Invention of News (2014), p. 6. "News fitted ideally into the expanding market for cheap print, and it swiftly became an important commodity."
  17. ^ Boyd-Barrett & Rantanen, The Globalization of News (1998), p. 6. "News agency news is considered 'wholesale' resource material, something that has to be worked upon, smelted, reconfigured, for conversion into a news report that is suitable for consumption by ordinary readers. It has also suited the news agencies to be thus presented: they have needed to seem credible to extensive networks of 'retail' clients of many different political and cultural shades and hues. They have wanted to avoid controversy, to maintain an image of plain, almost dull, but completely dependable professionalism."
  18. ^ Phil MacGregor, "International News Agencies: Global eyes that never blink", in Fowler-Watt & Allan (eds.), Journalism (2013).

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Spoljašnje vezeUredi