Теорија музике (енгл. music theory и фр. théorie de la musique)[1][2] је наука која се бави тумачењем музичких елемената, правила и закона по којима се они примењују приликом стварања и извођења музичких дела, од чије праксе је ова наука и настала.

Сви елементи теорије музике су уједно и наставни предмети у нижим и средњим музичким школама и на музичким академијама - факултетима, јер су у тесној вези са живом музичком праксом.

Назив теорија је грчког порекла и значи посматрање, објашњење.

Теорију музике чине:

  1. Основи теорије музике (општи музички појмови: нотација - ортографија, именовање тонова, музичке лествице...)
  2. Хармонија[3], однос и веза тонова акорада у складну целину, према хармонским законима. Проучава хомофони слог, тј, такву фактуру вишегласног става у којој доминира вертикални елемент (постоји један водећи мелодијски глас и њему подређена хармонска пратња).
  3. Контрапункт[4], наука вођења гласова, где су они равноправни и релативно самосталне мелодијске линије (полифони или контрапунктски слог је хоризонтално оријентисан).
  4. Музички облици[5], облици које композитор изабира да би у њима приказао свој унутрашњи свет.
  5. Акустика, наука о звуку. Она је део физике.
  6. Метрика, наука која се бави односом наглашених и ненаглашених тонова и ритам, ток тонова различитог временског трајања.
  7. Оркестрација, расписивање музичког дела у деонице за поједине музичке инструменте (за оркестар) и то према законима оркестрације, водећи рачуна на звучне и техничке могућности инструмената, њихове карактере и опсеге.

Референце уреди

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