Environmentalizam ili ekološka prava su široka filozofija, ideologija i društveni pokret koji se odnosi na brigu o zaštiti životne sredine i poboljšanju zdravlja životne sredine, posebno jer mera za to zdravlje nastoji da uključi uticaj promena životne sredine na ljude, životinje, biljke i neživu materiju. Dok se environmentalizam u većoj meri fokusira na ekološke i prirodne aspekte zelene ideologije i politike, ekologija kombinuje ideologiju socijalne ekologije i environmentalizam. Ekologija se češće koristi u kontinentalnim evropskim jezicima, dok se u engleskom jeziku češće koristi environmentalizam, mada reči imaju donekle različite konotacije. Environmentalista je osoba koja se angažuje na rešavanju problema životne sredine, naročito problema vezanih za zaštitu ekosistema, zagađenje, očuvanje ugroženih vrsta. Mnogi socijalni radnici aktivno učestvuju u pokretima za zdraviju sredinu.

Environmentalizam zagovara očuvanje, obnavljanje i/ili poboljšanje prirodnog okruženja i kritičnih elemenata ili procesa zemaljskog sistema poput klime, i može se nazvati pokretom za kontrolu zagađenja ili zaštitom biljne i životinjske raznolikosti.[1] Iz tog razloga, koncepti kao što su zemljišna etika, environmentalna etika, biodiverzitet, ekologija i hipoteza o biofiliji pretežno su zastupljeni.

U svojoj suštini, environmentalizam je pokušaj da se uravnoteže odnosi između ljudi i različitih prirodnih sistema od kojih oni zavise na takav način da se svim komponentama obezbedi odgovarajući stepen održivosti. Tačne mere i ishodi ove ravnoteže su kontroverzni i postoji mnogo različitih načina da se briga za životnu sredinu izrazi u praksi. Environmentalizam i brige o životnoj sredini su često predstavljeni zelenom bojom,[2] mada su ovu asocijaciju prisvojile marketinške industrije za taktiku poznatu kao ekomanipulacija.[3][4][5][6]

Environmentalizam se suprotstavlja antienvironmentalizmu,[7][8] koji zastupa stav da je Zemlja manje krhka nego što to neki ekolozi navode, i portretiše environmentalizam kao preterano reagovanje na ljudski doprinos klimatskim promenama ili kao protivljenje ljudskom napretku.[9]

Sabino je skulptura koju su 2019. godine stvorili učenici IES Isaac Peral pod vođstvom učiteljice crtanja Marie Pilar Lopez Salas. Lik, visok tri metra оd recikliranih materijalа, predstavlja antropomorfno drvo i podignut je sa ciljem da se skrene pažnja na nedostatak zelenih površina u gradu Kartaginа

DefinicijeУреди

Environmentalizam označava društveni pokret koji nastoji da utiče na politički proces lobiranjem, aktivizmom i obrazovanjem radi zaštite prirodnih resursa i ekosistema.

Environmentalista je osoba koja se zalaže za očuvanje prirodnog okruženja i održivo upravljanje raspoloživim resursima kroz promene u javnoj politici ili ophođenju pojedinca. To može da uključuje podršku praksama kao što su informisana potrošnja, inicijative očuvanja, ulaganja u obnovljive resurse, poboljšana efikasnosti materijalne ekonomije, prelazak na nove računovodstvene paradigme kao što su ekološka ekonomija, obnavljanje i oživljavanje naših veza sa živim svetom izvan ljudskog, ili čak donošenje odluka o smanjenju broja dece radi redukcije potrošnje i pritiska na resurse. Na razne načine (na primer, lokalni aktivizam i protesti), environmentalisti i organizacije za zaštitu životne sredine nastoje da prirodnom svetu daju jači glas.[10]

Uopšteno gledano, ekolozi se zalažu za održivo upravljanje resursima, i zaštitu (ili obnavljanje, kad je neophono) prirodnog okruženja kroz promene u javnoj politici i ponašanju pojedinca. U svom priznavanju čovečanstva kao učesnika u ekosustavima, pokret je usredsređen na ekologiju, zdravlje i ljudska prava.

IstorijaУреди

Nastojanja za zaštitu životne sredine pojavljivala se u različitim oblicima, u različitim delovima sveta, tokom istorije. Najranije ideje o protekcionizmu okoline mogu se naći u džainizmu, koji je Mahavira oživeo u 6. veku pre nove ere u drevnoj Indiji. Džinizam zastupa gledište koje se može smatrati potpuno kompatibilnim sa osnovnim vrednostima na kojima počiva environmentalni aktivizam, tj. zaštitom života nenasiljem; što bi moglo da formira osnovu snažnog ekološkog etosa, čime se gledište ove religije dodaje globalnim pozivima za zaštitu životne sredine. Učenja džainizma o simbiozi između svih živih bića i pet elemenata - zemlje, vode, vazduha, vatre i svemira, danas efektivno čine osnovu nauke o životnoj sredini.[11][12]

U Evropi je engleski kralj Edvard I zabranio spaljivanje morskog uglja proklamacijom u Londonu 1272. godine, nakon što je dim postao problem.[13][14] To gorivo je bilo toliko uobičajeno u Engleskoj da je njegov najraniji naziv proistekao iz toga da mogao ručnim kolicima odnositi sa dela morske obale.

Tokom ranog period islamske istorije na Bliskom Istoku, kalif Abu Bekr je tokom 630-ih naredio je svojoj vojsci da „ne nanose štetu drveću, i da ga ne pale vatrom”, i da „ne ubijaju ničije neprijateljsko stado, osim za svoju hranu”.[15] Arapske medicinske traktate tokom razdoblja 9. do 13. veka koji se bave environmentalizmom i naukom o životnoj sredini, uključujući zagađenje, napisali su Al Kindi, Kusta ibn Luka, Al-Razi, i niz drugih. Njihovi radovi obuhvatali su niz tema vezanih za zagađenje, kao što su zagađenje vazduha, zagađenje vode, zagađenje tla, neadekvatno rukovanje komunalnim čvrstim otpadom i procena uticaja na životnu sredinu određenih lokaliteta.[16]

ReferenceУреди

  1. ^ „Environmentalism – Definition and More from the Free Merriam-Webster Dictionary”. Merriam-webster.com. 13. 8. 2010. Приступљено 20. 6. 2012. 
  2. ^ Cat Lincoln (proleće 2009). „Light, Dark and Bright Green Environmentalism”. Green Daily. Архивирано из оригинала на датум 25. 4. 2009. Приступљено 2. 11. 2009. 
  3. ^ The Age of Persuasion (8. 1. 2011). „Season 5: It's Not Easy Being Green: Green Marketing”. CBC Radio. Приступљено 8. 1. 2011. 
  4. ^ „LP: 'The biggest environmental crime in history'. Libertypost.org. Приступљено 11. 9. 2009. 
  5. ^ Kahle, Lynn R.; Gurel-Atay, Eda, ур. (2014). Communicating Sustainability for the Green Economy. M.E. Sharpe. ISBN 9780765636812. 
  6. ^ Marquis, Christopher; Qian, Cuili (2014). „Corporate Social Responsibility Reporting in China: Symbol or Substance?”. Organization Science (на језику: енглески). 25 (1): 127—148. ISSN 1047-7039. doi:10.1287/orsc.2013.0837. hdl:1813/36445. 
  7. ^ Beder, Sharon (2002). International Encyclopedia of Environmental Politics. London, UK: Routledge. 
  8. ^ Baggini, Julian (2012). The Big Questions: Ethics. London: Quercus Editions Ltd. стр. 122—130. 
  9. ^ Rowell, Andrew (1996). Green Backlash. Routledge. ISBN 978-0-415-12828-5. 
  10. ^ Robert Gottlieb, Forcing the Spring: The Transformation of the American Environmental Movement (2005)
  11. ^ Long, Jeffery D. (2013). Jainism: An Introduction. I.B.Tauris. ISBN 978-0-85773-656-7 — преко Google Books. 
  12. ^ „Jainism Introduction”. fore.yale.edu. Yale Forum on Religion and Ecology. 
  13. ^ David Urbinato (leto 1994). „London's Historic 'Pea-Soupers'. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Архивирано из оригинала на датум 2. 10. 2006. Приступљено 2. 8. 2006. 
  14. ^ „Deadly Smog”. PBS. 17. 1. 2003. Приступљено 2. 8. 2006. 
  15. ^ Aboul-Enein, H. Yousuf; Zuhur, Sherifa (2004), Islamic Rulings on Warfare, Strategic Studies Institute, US Army War College, стр. 22, ISBN 978-1-58487-177-4 
  16. ^ Gari, L. (novembar 2002), „Arabic Treatises on Environmental Pollution up to the End of the Thirteenth Century”, Environment and History, 8 (4): 475—88, doi:10.3197/096734002129342747 

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Spoljašnje vezeУреди