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Amar ibn Jasir ibn Amir ibn Malik ibn Abu el Jakzan (570657)) (arapski: عمار بن یاسر) je bio jedan od Muhadžiruna u istoriji islama[2] i, zbog posvećenosti islamu, smatra se jednom od najodanijih i najdražih pratilaca Muhameda i Alija; tako, on zauzima poziciju najvišeg značaja u islamu.[3][4][5] Istorijski gledano, Amar ibn Jasir je prvi musliman koji je izgradio džamiju.[6] Šijtski muslimani ga nazivaju i jednim od četvorice ashaba.[7] Neki šijti smatraju da je Amarova konačna sudbina jedinstvena među sudbinama Muhamedovih saputnika, jer oni vide njegovu smrt u bici kod Sifina kao odlučujućeg razdvajanja između pravedne grupe i grešnih Prvoj Fitni.[8]

Amar ibn Jasir
arap. عمار بن یاسر
عمار بن ياسر.png
Mesto rođenjaMeka, Hidžaz,[1]
Mesto smrtiSirija
 Rašudinski kalifat

Period za vreme MuhamedaUredi

Pre prelaska na IslamUredi

Amar je pripadao plemenu Mahzum iz Hidžaza (sadašnja Saudijska Arabija). Rođen je u godini slona, iste godine kada je i Muhamed rođen, u Meki i bio je jedan od posrednika u Muhamedovom braku s Hadidžom bint Huvailidom. Njegov otac, Jasir ibn Amir, bio je iz plemena Kahtan u Jemenu i migrirao u Meku i tamo se nastanio oženivši se sa Sumaja bint Hajat, ženom robinjom; Amar i njegovi roditelji, Jasir i Sumaja, bili su robovi Abu Huzajfa, ali nakon njegove smrti, Abu Džal koji je kasnije postao jedan od najbrutalnijih neprijatelja islama i zloglasni mučitelj Amara i njegovih roditelja - preuzeo ih je kao robove. Amarovo poverenje i znanje o Muhamedovom kredibilitetu, čak i pre njegovog poslanja, ohrabrilo ga je da sledi Muhamedove proročke vizije kao jedan od najranijih preobraćenika.[9][10][11]

Nakon prelaska na IslamUredi

Amar je prešao na islam 614 ili 615 g. pod direktnim uticajem Abu Bakra.[12] Ovo se poklopilo sa periodom kada su Kurejšiji progonili muslimane niže klase.[13] Kao što je Amar kasnije rekao svom unuku: "Upoznao sam Suhaib ibn Sinana na vratima kuće El Arkama dok je Alahov Poslanik bio u njoj. Pitao sam ga:" Šta želite? " Rekao mi je: 'Šta želiš?' Odgovorio sam: 'Želim da idem kod Muhameda i slušam šta on kaže.' 'Rekao je:' To je ono što ja želim. ' Ušli smo i on nam je predstavio islam i mi smo postali muslimani. Onda smo proveli dan do večeri i izašli skrivajući se.[14] " Amarov otac, majka i brat su takođe postali muslimani, iako ne na poziv Abu Bakra.[15]

Kada su Kurejši saznali za preobraćanje Jasir-ove porodice u islam, oni su bili među "žrtvama koje su mučene u Meki kako bi ga se odrekli".[16] Klan Mahzuma je uzeo Amar ibn Jasira zajedno sa njegovim ocem i majkom po toplom danu i izlagao ih preterano vrelom okruženju Meke mučio ih, pekao ih na vatri, a Muhamed je prolazio pored njih. i rekao: "Strpljenje, O porodice Jasir! Vaše mesto sastanka će biti Raj"[17] i "O vatro! Budi hladan i bezopasan za Amara na isti način na koji si postala hladana i bezopasana za Ibrahima;" prema tome, Amar je imao ožiljke na svom telu od mučenja do kraja svog života.[18][19]

Amar je bio mučen "dok nije znao šta govori", kao što je bio njegov prijatelj Suhaib; u tom stanju, na kraju je klevetao Muhameda i govorio dobro o paganskim bogovima. Posle toga je otišao kod Muhameda i priznao svoje odricanje. Muhamed je pitao: "Kako nalaziš svoje srce?" Kada je Amar odgovorio da je još uvek musliman u svom srcu, Muhamed je rekao da je sve dobro. Kuranski stih, "neko koga je naterao da to uradi, čije srce ostaje mirno u svojoj vjeri" (16: 106), odnosi se na Amara.[20][21]Ovaj stih iz kurana poznat je i kao takija prema kojoj musliman može prividno da se odrekne islama kako bi zavarao neprijatelja pri čemu mu se odricanje neće uzeti za zlo ako je u svom srcu ostao veran islamu pri čemu je i laž legitimno sredstvo u zavaravanju nevernika. Amarinu majku ubio je Abu Džahl zbog njenog odbijanja da se odrekne islama: smatra se prvim muslimanskim mučenikom.[22] Uvodni stihovi Sure El Ankabuta (poglavlje 29: Pauk) otkriveni su kao odgovor na ovaj tragični događaj.[23]

Kako bi se izbeglo mučenje Mekanaca u to vreme, navodno se navodi da je Amar otišao u Abisiniju 616. godine,[24] ali Ibn Išak sumnja u to.[25]

Bitke pod muhamedomUredi

On je bio jedan od retkih ratnika koji su učestvovali u prvoj velikoj bici u islamu, bici kod Badra. Tipično, Muhamedove elitne snage su obično uključivale njegove najbliže pratioce, naime Alija, Hamzu ibn Abdul Mutaliba, Mus ab ibn Omaira, Az Zubajr bin El Avama, Amar ibn Jasira, Abu Dar el Gifaria, Abu Bakra i Omara. Važno je spomenuti, da su zbog strogih uslova života muslimana u to vreme, doveli samo neke kamile i nekoliko konja, što znači da su ili morali hodati ili stajati tri do četiri muškarca po kamili;[26] u teškim uslovima sa kojima je jadan sahaba morao da se suoči, Amar je bio veoma poznat i poštovan zbog svoje pobožne posvećenosti svim teškim borbama sa muslimanima čak i nakon Muhamedove smrti.[27]

Osim njegovog velikog učešća u islamskim vojnim kampanjama, ovaj incident u Muhamedovom životu pokazao se kao najznačajniji - istorijski - muslimanima: dok je ʻAmar učestvovao u izgradnji Poslaničke džamije u Medini, (citirajući hadis) kada su ga preopteretili ciglama govoreći: 'Ubijaju me. Natovarili su me teretima koje ne mogu da nose. Um Salama, prorokova žena je rekla: videla sam kako apostol prolazi rukom kroz kosu - jer je bio kovrčav čovek - i rekao 'Alas Ibn Sumajamu! Nisu oni koji će te ubiti, nego zla skupina ljudi. "... Sada je imao štap u ruci i apostol je bio ljut i rekao:" Šta nije u redu između njih i ʻAmara?On ih poziva u Raj dok oni njega pozivaju u pakao.[28][29]'" Ovi izveštaji, koje su i suniti i šiiti smatrali verodostojnim, kasnije će biti važni tokom pitanja sukcesije, a posebno u tumačenju Amarove smrti u bici kod Sifina.

Uloga nakon Muhamedove smrtiUredi

  Posle smrti Muhameda 632. godine,[30] Amar je odbio položi zakletvu Baji (odanost) Abu Bekru, umesto toga je sledio Ali ibn Abi Taliba za koga je verovao da je legitimni naslednik Muhameda i jedini koga je Muhamed imenovao za svog naslednika.[31][32]

Pod Omarom, je postao guverner Kufe, međutim, ubrzo je uklonjen sa vlasti od strane Omara; s jedne strane, razlozi njegovog otpuštanja nisu bili zvanično poznati.[33]Po drugom izveštaju, međutim, Omar je odbacio Amara da bi izbegao nemire u Kufi (zbog nepravičnih žalbi koje su protiv Amara podneli njegovi politički neprijatelji).[34]

Pre izbora u Osman ibn Afana u šuri i njegovog eventualnog svrgavanja, Amar je upozorio na predstojeći sukob ako bude izabran neko drugi umesto Alija i rekao: "Ako ne želite izazvati spor među muslimanima, morate dati zalog vernosti Aliju. "[35]Pod kalifatom Osmana ibn Afana, Amar je na kraju postao jedan od najvećih i najaktivnijih pobunjenika protiv Osmana (a njegova uloga u pobunama kulminirala je u Prvoj Fitni); iako su detalji njihovih neprijateljstava jedni prema drugima faktički diskutabilni.[36][37]

Bitka kamileUredi

Pre početka bitke kamile, šura(savetovanje) je održana u pokušaju da se odluči o nasledniku nakon smrti Utmana,[38] na ovom sastanku, učesnici nisu bili saglasni oko toga da li je odmazda za Utmanovo ubistvo neophodna ili ne. Izveštaj Alkama b. Vakas el Laiti iz Kinane ukazuje da je Amar rekao da ne treba tražiti osvetu.[38] Madelung tumači Amarovo ponašanje na ovom sastanku ukazujući na njegovu želju da zadrži Talha od sticanja moći jer je Talha bio za traženje odmazde. Amar ne bi to želeo jer je bio najaktivniji u podsticanju pobunjenika na akciju."[38]Kako se bitka razvijala, Amar je nastavio da pokazuje svoju podršku Aliju na više načina Ali ga je prvi put poslao zajedno s el Hasanom u Kufu kako bi pokušao da okupi Kufance da bi pomogli u nadolazećoj bici.[38] Prema jednom izvještaju koji je zabiležio El Tabari, Amar je ispitivan po dolasku zbog učešća u ubistvu Utmana; međutim, on je sa pokušajima da ubedi guvernera, Abu Musa, da zauzme stav umesto da ostane nepristrasan u sukobu.[39] El Tabari izveštava o tome kako je Abu Musa ohrabrio Kufance da ostanu neutralni, jer nije želeo da učestvuje u borbama među muslimanima, a takođe je verovao da muslimanska zajednica još uvek duguje svoju odanost Utmanu jer nije imenovan novi naslednik. Dodatni prenos istog događaja ne pominje Amar-ove postupke protiv Utmana i umesto toga se fokusira na njegove namere da pokrene Abu Musa u akciju.[39][40] Tokom same bitke, Amar se borio na Alijevoj stranu. El Tabari u svojoj istoriji daje račun[39] u kojem je el Zubajru rečeno da se Amar bori zajedno s Alijem, i to saznanje dovodi do toga da se el Zubajr boji jer je bio sa Muhamedom i Amarom kad je Muhamed rekao `Amaru da će ga ubiti "grupa zlih ljudi".[29] El Tabari ponovo uključuje više izveštaja o istom događaju, koji je u ovom slučaju trenutak u bici u kojoj se ʻAmar i el Zubajr sukobljavaju.[39] U oba slučaja Amar pristupa el Zubajr-u da ga napadne, kada el Zubajr govori. U izveštaju Omar b. Šabaha, el Zubajr pita Amara, Da li želiš da me ubiješ? ,[39] dok o tome izveštaju 'Amira b. Hafsa, el Zubajr pita: "Hoćeš li me ubiti, Abu al Jakzan?"[39] U oba izvještaja, Amar-ov odgovor je negativan. Na kraju bitke, koja je uspešna za Alijevu stranu, Ali naređuje Amaru i Muhamed ibn Abi Bakru da uklone Aišu od njene kamile i dovedu je Abdalah ibn Halaf el Huzin dom u Basri,[39] jer El Tabari u više navrata navodi višestruke izveštaje različitih hroničara, takve varijacije pružaju konzistentnost i detalje incidenata - u to vreme - izveštava o prirodi konsekventnog sastanka ʻAmar i Aiše na nejasan način: za jedan račun prikazuje Aišu kao neprijateljski raspoloženu prema Amaru,[39] dok se u drugom kasnijem izvještaju opisuje da su postupali na mnogo prijateljskiji način.[39]

Mučeništvo u bici kod SifinaUredi

Dok je formulisao strategiju o tome kako da porazi snage Muavije I, Ali je okupio grupu islamske vladajuće elite koja je uključivala Amara, Hašim ibn Utba i Kajs ibn Sada koji su, kolektivno ohrabrili Alija da vodi džihad protiv onih za koje smatraju da su u pogrešno odabrali.[38] Malik El Aštar je takođe podelio ovo mišljenje (iako u drugom incidentu).[41] Kasnije tokom bitke, ʻAmarovo ime je korišćeno tokom pokušaja da se pregovara o primirju između, Alija, koga je predstavljao Šabat ibn Ribi, i Muavije.[38] [39]Navodi se da je Šabat pitao Muaviju: "Da li bi vas to usrećilo, O Muavija, ako bi vam dali moć nad" Amarom, da ga ubijete?[39] " Muaviijn odgovor je bio:" Zašto ne bih? Ali, od Boga, ako Dobio sam vlast nad Ibn Šumajjom, ne bih ga ubio u osveti za "Utmana", već za Natila mavla od "Utmana". Šabatov odgovor bio je odbramben i zaštitnički prema Amaru. U Bici kod Sifina u El Šamu, Ali je postavio Amara za zapovednika pešadije iz Kufe, a trećeg dana borbe pokušava da inspiriše svoje snage na pobedu podsećajući ih na bezbožnost Muavije i njegovih trupa.[39] Konačno, Amar je u bici bio ubijen od strane snaga Muavije ibn Abi Sufjana 657. godine.[39]

Dok se izveštaji vezani za Amrovu starost razlikuju prema tačnosti, većina njegovu starost procenjuje na devedeset godina ili više.[38] Madelung mu daje više od 90 godina,[38] dok Hason tvrdi da je bio star negde između 90 i 94 godina.[42] Prema jednom izvještaju, Tabari navodi, da Abdalah b. Amr ispituje oca, Amr b.el Asa, o ubijanju Amara. Abdllah upućuje na hadis u kojem Muhamed kaže za Amar da će ga 'uzurpatorska stranka' ubiti.[39] Amr donosi ovu zabrinutost Muaviji čiji je odgovor "Da li smo mi ubili Amara? Samo oni koji su ga doveli ovde." Ali ibn abi Talib je rekao da je odgovorio da ako je ubio Amara onda je Muhamed onaj ko je ubio Hamzu Abdul Mutaliba.[43]

ZaostavštinaUredi

At Tabarani pripoveda u El Avsatu da je Amar ibn Jasir rekao: Ko god je preferirao nekog od Alahovog Poslanika, neka ga Alah blagoslovi i podari mu mir, nad Abu Bakrom i Omarom koji omalovažavaju Muhadžirun i Ansar.[44]

Muhamed je odredio Amar ibn Jasira za jedanog od četvoro Sahaba koje bi muslimani trebalo da poštuju, a takođe i one kojima je obećan Raj.[45][46]

Kada je Amar umro, Muavjia ga je nazvao "jednom od dve ruke tj. desnom rukom Alija", dok je druga bio Malik el Aštar. Madelung citira El Tabarija izvještavajući o onome što je Muavija rekao svojim sledbenicima nakon što je ubio drugog lojalnog pratioca Alija, Malik el Aštara: "Ali b. Abi Talib je imao dve desne ruke. Jedan od njih je bio isečen u Sifinu, što znači Amar b. Jasir, a drugi danas, el Aštar.[38] Uprkos Muavijinim provokacijama, Ali ibn Abi Talib, koji je u to vreme bio kalif, visoko je cenio podršku Amara ibn Jasira i Malik el Aštara.[47] Ipak Ali je duboko žalio zbog gubitka Amra.[48]U 20. veku, bivši palestinski lider, Jaser Arafat, dobio je nadimak "Abu Amar" nakon Amara ibn Jasira.[49]

ʻAmarovo počivalište, pre njegovog uništenja, često je posećivano i od strane muslimanima.[50]

Skrnavljenje grobaUredi

Dana 11. marta 2013. godine, Nusra Front, povezan s Al Kaidom, oskrnavio je prilikom bombardovanja i naneo velika oštećenja grobu Amar ibn Jasira koji se nalazi u Raki u Siriji.[51] Teroristička grupa Al Nusra i Al Kaida kao i sa njima povezane grupe i drugi pobunjenici Salafista / Vehabija okrivljeni su za svetogrđe. [51] Dana 13. marta 2013. godine, grupa sirijskih pobunjenika preuzela je odgovornost za uništenje Amar-ovog svetilišta. Ovaj napad zajedno sa uništenjem groba Hudžr ibn Adija, groba Sjeda Zajnab bint Alija i groba Sjeda Rukaija bint Husein ibn Alija bili su povezani sa pokretom Vehabija.[52]

Uništavanje Amarovog groba je osuđeno je od strane muslimana[53][54] i izazvalo je bes u različitim delovima muslimanskog sveta.[55][56]

ReferenceUredi

  1. ^ Swayd, Samy. The A to Z of the Druzes. Page xxiii, retrieved on 6 January 2019. "610-632 Druze ancestors are Islamized; influential figures in Druze spirituality include Prophet Muhammad's companions Salman al-Farisi, al-Muqdad Ibn al-Aswad, and 'Ammar Ibn Yasir."
  2. ^ Ammar Ibn Yasser' shrine is violated, Islam Times, retrieved on 13 Apr 2014
  3. ^ Prophet Muhammad (warning Khalid ibn al-Walid): "Whoever makes an enemy of Ammar, Allah makes an enemy of him; whoever hates ʻAmmār, Allah hates him; whoever curses ʻAmmār, Allah curses him; whoever belittles ‘Ammar, Allah belittles him; and whoever disparages ‘Ammar, Allah disaparages him," ‘Abdul-‘Aziz As-Shanawi, The Ministers around the Prophet - Page 122, Dar-us-Salam (2004), Pristupljeno 2 Mar 2014
  4. ^ Prophet Muhammad: "‘Ammar is with the truth and the truth is with ‘Ammar. He turns wherever the truth turns"; "ʻAmmār is as near to me as an eye is near to the nose. Alas! a rebellious group will kill him." Nahj ul Balagha: Sermons from Imam Ali - On the method of his ruling, and grief over the martyrdom of his companions, Google Books, Pristupljeno 23 Feb 2014
  5. ^ Imam Ali (deeply saddened while and openly weeping in commiserating Ammar Bin Yassir's martyrdom in the Battle of Siffin): "Any Muslim, who doesn't consider the event of ʻAmmār's being killed to be great, and doesn't treat it to be a painful tragedy, won't be recognized to be adult and mature. May Allah bless ʻAmmār on the day on which he embraced Islam, the day on which he was killed and the day on which he will rise from earth once again! I saw ʻAmmār at such a position that if the companions of the Holy Prophet (S) were reckoned to be four he was the fourth and if they were five he was the fifth and none of the companions of the Holy Prophet (S) doubted this. Paradise has become essential for ʻAmmār and his entitlement to Paradise did not depend on one or two instances [only]. (The Imam [then] took Ammar’s head and put it in his lap and recited): O death who does not leave me, relieve me, for you have destroyed all friends! I see that you are aware of those whom I love as if that you walk towards them with a guide!", The life of Imam Al-Hasan al-Mujtaba by Baqir Shareef al-Qurashi and translated by Jasim al-Rasheed, Chapter XI - At Siffin, Pristupljeno 31 May 2014
  6. ^ Syed A. A. Razwy, A Restatement of the History of Islam & Muslims C.E. 570 to 661, pages 91 & 552, Google Books, Pristupljeno 27 Feb 2014
  7. ^ Photos: Blast at the Holy Shrine of Prophet Muhammad's Companions 'Ammar Yasir' Denied, AhlulBayt News Agency (ABNA), Pristupljeno 23 Feb 2014
  8. ^ Ammar's fall in the Battle, Rafed.net, Pristupljeno 7 Dec 2014
  9. ^ Sayyid Saeed Akhtar Rizvi: "Ammar and his parents were amongst the first converts to Islam. His father Yasir was from the tribe of Qahtan in Yemen. He, together with his two brothers, came to Mecca in search of a lost brother. His brothers returned to their homeland; but Yasir stayed in Mecca where he entered into a covenant with Abu Hudhayfah (from the tribe of Bani Makhzum), and married his slave-girl, Sumayyah bint Khayyat. Yasir and Sumayyah begot two sons, 'Abdullah and 'Ammar, who according to the custom of Arabia, were considered the slaves of Abu Hudhayfah." Slavery - Ammar bin Yasir , Al-islam. org, by Sayyid Saeed Akhtar Rizvi retrieved on 15 Dec. 2014
  10. ^ Kamran Shahid Ansari: "Ammar bin Yasir was one of the early reverts to Islam and belonged to Banu Makhzum tribe. He was born in the year of Elephant in Makkah and was one of the intermediaries in the Messenger of Allah’s (peace and blessings of Allah be to him) marriage to Khadija bint Khuwaylid (may Allah be pleased with her). His father Yasir (may Allah be pleased with him) was from Yemen and migrated to Makkah and settled down there by marrying Sumayya (may Allah be pleased with her), a slave woman. Earlier they were slaves to Abu Huzaifa, but upon his death Abu Jahl, one of the staunchest enemies of Islam took them over as slaves. Ammar, aware of the extraordinary qualities and impeccable character of the Messenger of Allah, did not take much time to revert to Islam" Radiance Viewsweekly, Ammar Bin Yasir (May Allah be pleased with him), by Kamran Shahid Ansari, retrieved on 15 Dec. 2014
  11. ^ "Ammar’s parents Yassir and Summaya also accepted Islam on the very same day due to a dream Yassir had the previous night. He dreamed that Ammar and his wife were calling to him from a garden from across a valley divided by fire. The whole family accepted Islam and drew the notice and hatred of one of the chieftains of Quraish, Abu Jahl" www.newmuslims.com, The Companions of Prophet Muhammad: Ammar ibn Yassir, retrieved on 27 January 2017
  12. ^ Muhammad ibn Ishaq. Sirat Rasul Allah. Translated by Guillaume, A. (1955). The Life of Muhammad, p. 117. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
  13. ^ Ibn Ishaq/Guillaume p. 143.
  14. ^ Muhammad ibn Saad. Kitab al-Tabaqat al-Kabir, vol. 3. Translated by Bewley, A. (2013). The Companions of Badr, p. 189. London: Ta-Ha Publishers.
  15. ^ Ibn Saad/Bewley vol. 3 p. 188.
  16. ^ Ibn Saad/Bewley vol. 3 pp. 189-190.
  17. ^ Ibn Ishaq/Guillaume p. 145.
  18. ^ Ibn Saad/Bewley vol. 3 p. 190.
  19. ^ Sadruddin Sharafuddin al-Amili, Ammar Ibn Yasir - A Companion of the Prophet('s) @ Al-islam.org, Chapter 7: Such is the World, Retrieved on September 21, 2015
  20. ^ Ibn Saad/Bewley vol. 3 pp. 190-191.
  21. ^ Kohlberg, Etan (July—September 1975). „Some Imami-shi'i Views on Taqiyya.”. Journal of the American Oriental Society. 95 (3): 395—402. JSTOR 599351. doi:10.2307/599351.  Proverite vrednost paramet(a)ra za datum: |date= (pomoć)
  22. ^ Muhammad ibn Saad. Kitab al-Tabaqat al-Kabir, vol. 8. Translated by Bewley, A. (1995). The Women of Madina, pp. 185-186. London: Ta-Ha Publishers.
  23. ^ Tafsir al-Qurtubi (in Arabic), explanation of and commentary on Surat Al-Ankabut, retrieved on may 30, 2014
  24. ^ Ibn Saad/Bewley vol. 3 p. 191.
  25. ^ Ibn Ishaq/Guillaume p. 148.
  26. ^ Martin Lings, Muhammad: His Life Based on the Earliest Sources, pages 138–139
  27. ^ ”'Ammar took part in all of the battles that occurred during the Prophet's lifetime. And even after the Prophet's death, 'Ammar continued to fight in the way of Allah until the very end; after all, the Prophet foretold that he was to die during battle, at the hands of a transgressing faction. Al-Fia'atul-Baghiyyah, or "the transgressing faction", refers to a specific meaning; when two Muslim groups fight against each other, the group that is in the wrong is referred to as being "the transgressing faction". Whenever there was a call to fight the enemies of Islam, 'Ammar bin Yasir did not tarry, but instead hurried to join the ranks of the Muslim army - and so it was for him during the battles of the apostates, which occurred during the caliphate of abu bakr. 'Ammar left with the army of Khalid bin Al-Walid. They were to fight the army of Musailamah bin Habib, who was known by the title, "the Liar." Musailamah apostatized by claiming to be a prophet, and his people followed him, not so much because they believed him, but more from a sense of tribal pride. During the early stages of the battle, the Muslims were losing, and when the situation looked grim, 'Ammar bin Yasir stood on top of a stone and called out as loudly as he could: "O Muslims, is it from Paradise that you are fleeing? I am 'Ammar bin Yasir ... gather around me." He then rushed with his horse into the heart of the enemy's army, advancing with no intention of retreating. 'Abdullah bin 'Umar later said, "I saw 'Ammar bin Yasir on the Day of Al-Yamamah (the said battle) fighting intrepidly and skillfully. And I saw his ear; it had been cut off and was making a sound (perhaps as it was dangling)." After the Muslims were victorious in the battles of the apostates, 'Ammar did not return home to safety, but instead marched to the front lines of Ash-Sham, remaining a dependable and brave fighter,” Abdul Aziz As-Shanawi, The Ministers around the Prophet - Page 123, Dar-us-Salam (2004), Pristupljeno 17 Feb 2015
  28. ^ Sahih Bukhari 1; Sahih Bukhari 2; Sahih Bukhari 3; Sahih Bukhari 4; Volume 1, Book 8, Number 438 & Volume 4, Book 52, Number 67 (all different versions of this incident included), Pristupljeno 25 Feb 2014
  29. 29,0 29,1 Muhammad ibn Ishaq, Sirat Rasul Allah. Translated by Guillaume, A. (1955). The Life of Muhammad, p. 115. Oxford: Oxford University Press
  30. ^ Elizabeth Goldman (1995), page 63, gives 8 June 632 CE, the dominant Islamic tradition. Many earlier (mainly non-Islamic) traditions refer to him as still alive at the time of the invasion of Palestine. See Stephen J. Shoemaker,The Death of a Prophet: The End of Muhammad's Life and the Beginnings of Islam, University of Pennsylvania Press, 2011.
  31. ^ Sadruddin Sharafuddin al-Amili, Ammar Ibn Yasir - A Companion of the Prophet('s) @ Al-islam.org, Chapter 10: The Day of Saqifa, Retrieved on May 21, 2014
  32. ^ Hajjah Amina Adil: "There were some of the Companions of the clan of the Bani Hashim who would have chosen 'Ali as their Khalifa; among these were Zubayr ibn al'Awwam, Miqdad bin 'Amr ibn alAswad, Salman alFarsi, Abu Dharr alGhifari, 'Ammar ibn Yasir, 'Utayba bin Abi Lahab", Muhammad the Messenger of Islam: His Life & Prophecy, retrieved on 27 January 2017
  33. ^ Sadruddin Sharafuddin al-Amili, Ammar Ibn Yasir (ra) - A Companion of the Prophet('s) @ Al-islam.org, Chapter 12: The Governor of Kufa, Retrieved on May 21, 2014
  34. ^ Al-Tabari, The History of al-Tabari Vol. 14: The Conquest of Iran A.D. 641-643/A.H. 21-23, pages 47-51, Retrieved on May 21, 2014
  35. ^ Ammar ibn Yasir: "If you do not want to cause a dispute among the Muslims, you have to give the pledge of allegiance to Ali." WALID F. JAMMAL, IMAM ALI IBN ABI TALEB THE FOURTH CALIPH: الامام علي بن ابي طالب - Page 48, Dar Al- Kotob Al Miyah (2006), Pristupljeno 14 April 2019
  36. ^ Islam Q & A, Doubts about the Sahaabah (may Allah be pleased with them) and a response to those doubts, retrieved on 24 December 2018
  37. ^ "'Ammar ibn Yasir belonged to the camp of Ali, and when Uthman was chosen as the Caliph 'Ammar offered him his allegiance like the other Muslims, but he was not happy with the caliphate of Uthman. In course of time 'Ammar's opposition to Uthman increased" www.alim.org, Khalifa Uthman bin Affan - 'Ammar bin Yasir, retrieved on 26 January 2017
  38. 38,0 38,1 38,2 38,3 38,4 38,5 38,6 38,7 38,8 Madelung, Wilferd (1997). The Succession to Muhammad a Study of the Early Caliphate. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. pp. 95–96, 142, 166–167, 215, 226, 229–230, and 234.
  39. 39,00 39,01 39,02 39,03 39,04 39,05 39,06 39,07 39,08 39,09 39,10 39,11 39,12 39,13 al-Tabari (1997). Ehsan Yar-Shater (ed.). The History of al-Tabari vol. 16. Trans. Adrian Brockett. Albany: State University of New York. pp. 23, 31, 32, 64–70, 68, 69, 88, 89, 94, 95, 128, 129, 130, 131, 156–158, 171, and 172.
  40. ^ Tayob, Abdelkader I. (1999). "Tabari on the Companions of the Prophet: Moral and Political Contours in Islamic Historical Writing". Journal of the American Oriental Society. 119 (2): 206. doi:10.2307/606105. JSTOR 606105. Tayob suggests that al-Tabari's history was very carefully compiled in order to bring into question several of the companions motives for their actions.
  41. ^ Dr. Mohammad Nurul Alam: "Before marching towards Muawiya, Imam Ali (A.S.) tried to settle matters peacefully by sending Jarir, chief of Bani Bajila and the governor of Hamdan, to Syria as an envoy. However, Jarir became so engrossed in the entertainment that Muawiya put his way, that he wasted his time in Syria. He finally returned three months later with the useless message that peace could only be negotiated if the murderers of Uthman were brought to justice. Malik al-Ashtar accused him of having wasted time in effeminate pleasures with Muawiya, who purposely kept him long enough to mature his plans of hostilities. Jarir left Kufa and joined Muawiya", Destruction & Peace, End of Saudi Monarchy with the Arrival of Hazrat Imam Mahdi (A) along with reemergence of Jesus Christ (Nabi Isa A.), retrieved on May 30, 2014 (requires subscription for access)
  42. ^ Reckendorf, H. „ʿAmmār b. Yāsir”. Encyclopaedia of Islam, Second Edition. Brill. Pristupljeno 7. 4. 2012.  Reckendorf writes he was killed "at an extremely advanced age" (requires subscription for access)
  43. ^ Syed A. A. Razwy, A Restatement of the History of Islam & Muslims C.E. 570 to 661, page 504, World Federation; 1st edition (1997), Pristupljeno 10 Mar 2014
  44. ^ Aydın, Kadir. „Kalamullah.Com | The History Of The Khalifahs who Took The Right Way By Shaykh Jalaluddin Suyuti” (na jeziku: engleski). 
  45. ^ ”So high a ranking did 'Ammar have among the Companions, that the Prophet Mohammad said: 'Follow the example of those two who come after me, Abu Bakr and Umar. And follow the guidance of 'Ammar” Abdul Aziz As-Shanawi, The Ministers around the Prophet - Page 122, Dar-us-Salam (2004), Pristupljeno 6 Feb 2017
  46. ^ ”Huthaifa related that the Prophet said: "I do not know how long I shall be with you, so accept the leadership of the two who will follow me (and he pointed to Abu Bakr and Umar), and follow the guidance of Ammar. Believe whatever Ibn Massoud tells you.” International Islamic University Malaysia, Surah # 80 - The Frowning, by Sayyid Qutb (In the Shade of the Qur'an), retrieved on 6 Feb 2017
  47. ^ Reckendorf, H. „ʿAmmār b. Yāsir”. Encyclopaedia of Islam, Second Edition. Brill. Pristupljeno 7. 4. 2012. (requires subscription for access)
  48. ^ Sayed Ali Asgher Razwy: "When Ali heard that Ammar was killed in action, he recited the 156th verse of the 2nd chapter of Al-Qur’an al-Majid as follows: 'We are for God, and toward Him is our return.' Ammar's death was a terrible shock to Ali. They had been friends since the days when Ammar and his parents were tortured by the Quraysh for accepting Islam, and their friend, Muhammad, comforted them. But Muhammad himself had, long since, parted company with them. Now Ammar also left this world, leaving Ali alone. Ali was overwhelmed by sorrow and by an awful feeling of “lonesomeness.” Ali and his friends said the funeral prayer for Ammar ibn Yasir, the friend of Allah, the companion of Muhammad, and the Martyr of Siffin, and gave him burial. Just like his two friends, Muhammad and Ali, Ammar had also fought the Quraysh all his life. Earlier, the Quraysh had killed his parents, and now they killed him. Each of the three Yasirs’ had won the crown of Martyrdom. Ali's sorrow at Ammar's death was matched by Muawiya's exultation. The latter often said that Ammar was one of the two arms of Ali (the other arm being Malik ibn Ashter), and he boasted that he had severed that arm.", A Restatement of the History of Islam and Muslims, The battle of Siffin @ Al-islam.org, Pristupljeno 21 May 2014
  49. ^ Helena Cobban (before Yasser Arafat's marriage): "Yasser Arafat is not married, but is called 'Abu 'Ammar' as an inversion of the name of the heroic early Muslim warrior 'Ammar bin ('son of) Yasser. The idea, presumably, that if Yasser Arafat had a son, he would or should be as heroic as the earlier Ammar [ibn Yasir]", The Palestinian Liberation Organisation: People, Power and Politics (Cambridge Middle East Library), page 272, Pristupljeno 21 May 2014
  50. ^ The Washington Times: "As important figures in Islamic history, the attack on the shrines of these figures will likely be viewed as an affront to the Shiite Muslims who typically perform pilgrimages at the memorial. While Sunni Muslims view the two personalities favorably, they typically avoid attending or visiting shrines of any revered figures, believing the practice to be an 'innovation' and thus sinful. Despite this, multiple Sunni groups have expressed anger at the attack", The Washington Times - HUSAIN: Attack on Shiite shrines in Syria may result in dramatic rise in tensions, Pristupljeno 21 May 2014
  51. 51,0 51,1 "Militants Blow up Muslim Shrine in Syria's Raqqa Archived 2013-07-08 at the Wayback Machine", Press TV. N.p., 12 Mar. 2013. Web. 02 Aug. 2013
  52. ^ „Syria militants exhume grave of Prophet's companion”. Press TV. 2. 5. 2013. Pristupljeno 5. 5. 2013. 
  53. ^ Majlis Ulama-e-Shia (Europe), Majlis e Ulama Shia Europe condemns the terrorist attacks on the Holy Shrines of Ammar Ibn Yassir (ra) and Uwais Al-Qarani (RA), Pristupljeno 21 May 2014
  54. ^ Shiitenews.com, Majlis-e-Wehdatul Muslimeen (MWM) and Imamia Students Organization (ISO) protest against desecration of holy shrines Archived 2014-05-21 at Archive.today, Pristupljeno 21 May 2014
  55. ^ The Siasat Daily, Protest in India against desecration of shrines of Hazrat Owais Qarni and Ammar Yasir (RA), Pristupljeno 21 May 2014
  56. ^ Universal Muslim Association of America (UMAA), Press Release: Shrine of Ammar Ibn Yasser Archived 2014-05-21 at the Wayback Machine, Pristupljeno 21 May 2014

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