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Кување у ресторану у Мароку

Кување је уметност, технологија, наука и занат припреманја хране за конзумацију. Cooking techniques and ingredients vary widely across the world, from grilling food over an open fire to using electric stoves, to baking in various types of ovens, reflecting unique environmental, economic, and cultural traditions and trends. Types of cooking also depend on the skill levels and training of cooks. Cooking is done both by people in their own dwellings and by professional cooks and chefs in restaurants and other food establishments. Cooking can also occur through chemical reactions without the presence of heat, such as in ceviche, a traditional South American dish where fish is cooked with the acids in lemon or lime juice.

Preparing food with heat or fire is an activity unique to humans. It may have started around 2 million years ago, though archaeological evidence for it reaches no more than 1 million years ago.[1]

The expansion of agriculture, commerce, trade, and transportation between civilizations in different regions offered cooks many new ingredients. New inventions and technologies, such as the invention of pottery for holding and boiling water, expanded cooking techniques. Some modern cooks apply advanced scientific techniques to food preparation to further enhance the flavor of the dish served.[2]

Кување је термичка обрада сирове хране, за људску исхрану. Кува се у води или на пари - на 100 °C. Осим кувања храна се термички може још припремати и печењем или динстањем. Оба начина храну термички обрађују на температури од преко 100 °C, с тим што се динстање одвија на нешто нижој температури, ближе 100 °C.

ИсторијаУреди

 
Homo erectus may have begun cooking food as early as 500,000 years ago.

Phylogenetic analysis suggests that human ancestors may have invented cooking as far back as 1.8 million to 2.3 million years ago.[3] Re-analysis of burnt bone fragments and plant ashes from the Wonderwerk Cave in South Africa has provided evidence supporting control of fire by early humans by 1 million years ago.[4] There is evidence that Homo erectus was cooking their food as early as 500,000 years ago.[5] Evidence for the controlled use of fire by Homo erectus beginning some 400,000 years ago has wide scholarly support.[6][7] Archaeological evidence from 300,000 years ago,[8] in the form of ancient hearths, earth ovens, burnt animal bones, and flint, are found across Europe and the Middle East. Anthropologists think that widespread cooking fires began about 250,000 years ago when hearths first appeared.[9]

Recently, the earliest hearths have been reported to be at least 790,000 years old.[10]

 
Historical oven baking, in a painting by Jean-François Millet, 1854

Communication between the Old World and the New World in the Columbian Exchange influenced the history of cooking. The movement of foods across the Atlantic from the New World, such as potatoes, tomatoes, maize, beans, bell pepper, chili pepper, vanilla, pumpkin, cassava, avocado, peanut, pecan, cashew, pineapple, blueberry, sunflower, chocolate, gourds, and squash, had a profound effect on Old World cooking. The movement of foods across the Atlantic from the Old World, such as cattle, sheep, pigs, wheat, oats, barley, rice, apples, pears, peas, chickpeas, green beans, mustard, and carrots, similarly changed New World cooking.[11]

In the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, food was a classic marker of identity in Europe. In the nineteenth-century "Age of Nationalism" cuisine became a defining symbol of national identity.

The Industrial Revolution brought mass-production, mass-marketing, and standardization of food. Factories processed, preserved, canned, and packaged a wide variety of foods, and processed cereals quickly became a defining feature of the American breakfast.[12] In the 1920s, freezing methods, cafeterias, and fast food restaurants emerged.

Starting early in the 20th century, governments issued nutrition guidelines that led to the food pyramid[13] (introduced in Sweden in 1974). The 1916 "Food For Young Children" became the first USDA guide to give specific dietary guidelines. Updated in the 1920s, these guides gave shopping suggestions for different-sized families along with a Depression Era revision which included four cost levels. In 1943, the USDA created the "Basic Seven" chart to promote nutrition. It included the first-ever Recommended Daily Allowances from the National Academy of Sciences. In 1956, the "Essentials of an Adequate Diet" brought recommendations which cut the number of groups that American school children would learn about down to four. In 1979, a guide called "Food" addressed the link between excessive amounts of unhealthy foods and chronic diseases. Fats, oils, and sweets were added to the four basic food groups.

РеференцеУреди

  1. ^ Rupp, Rebecca (2015-09-02). „A Brief History of Cooking With Fire”. National Geographic. Приступљено 2019-05-29. 
  2. ^ W. Wayt Gibbs; Nathan Myhrvold (2011). „A New Spin on Cooking”. Scientific American. 304 (3): 23. Bibcode:2011SciAm.304c..23G. PMID 21438483. doi:10.1038/scientificamerican0311-23a. 
  3. ^ Organ, Chris (22. 8. 2011). „Phylogenetic rate shifts in feeding time during the evolution of Homo”. PNAS. 108 (35): 14555—14559. Bibcode:2011PNAS..10814555O. PMC 3167533 . PMID 21873223. doi:10.1073/pnas.1107806108. 
  4. ^ Pringle, Heather (2. 4. 2012), „Quest for Fire Began Earlier Than Thought”, ScienceNOW, Архивирано из оригинала на датум 15. 4. 2013, Приступљено 2012-04-04 
  5. ^ Pollard, Elizabeth (2015). Worlds Together, Worlds Apart. New York: Norton. стр. 13. ISBN 978-0-393-92207-3. 
  6. ^ Luke, Kim. „Evidence That Human Ancestors Used Fire One Million Years Ago”. Приступљено 2013-10-27. »An international team led by the University of Toronto and Hebrew University has identified the earliest known evidence of the use of fire by human ancestors. Microscopic traces of wood ash, alongside animal bones and stone tools, were found in a layer dated to one million years ago« 
  7. ^ „Archaeologists Find Earliest Evidence of Humans Cooking With Fire - DiscoverMagazine.com”. 
  8. ^ Smith, Roff (29. 1. 2014). „Oldest Known Hearth Found in Israel Cave”. National Geographic. Приступљено 17. 3. 2014. 
  9. ^ „Pennisi: Did Cooked Tubers Spur the Evolution of Big Brains?”. Cogweb.ucla.edu. Приступљено 7. 11. 2013. 
  10. ^ Staff (12. 8. 2016). „What Does It Mean To Be Human? - Hearths & Shelters”. Smithsonian Institution. Приступљено 12. 8. 2016. 
  11. ^ Nunn, Nathan; Qian, Nancy (2010). „The Columbian Exchange: A History of Disease, Food, and Ideas”. Journal of Economic Perspectives. 24 (2): 163—188. CiteSeerX 10.1.1.232.9242 . JSTOR 25703506. doi:10.1257/jep.24.2.163. 
  12. ^ „Archived copy” (PDF). Архивирано из оригинала (PDF) на датум 16. 11. 2013. Приступљено 2012-03-27. 
  13. ^ „The history of the food pyramid”. Washington Post. 31. 1. 2011. Приступљено 18. 4. 2013. 

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